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Global health leaders discussed the challenges of climate change and widening inequality during the closing keynote sssion, biaxin online canada 'Climate Change, Social Determinants of Health. Leading Recovery and Preparing for the Future'.The speakers were Prof Jan Semenza, lead of biaxin online canada the Health Determinants Programme, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) in Sweden, Professor Prof Sam Shah, founder &. Director, Faculty of Future Health in the UK, Dr Hans Kluge, regional director for Europe, WHO in Denmark and Hal Wolf, president and CEO, HIMSS, US.

WHY IT biaxin online canada MATTERS HIMSS20 Digital Learn on-demand, earn credit, find products and solutions. Get Started >>. It is predicted that climate change will cause around 250,000 additional annual biaxin online canada deaths between 2030 and 2050.

The combined effect of climate change, and increasing inequality, could lead to a more divided world. This could exacerbate biaxin online canada the impact of social and environmental determinants of health, for example, clean air. Safe drinking water.

Sufficient quantity and biaxin online canada quality of food. Secure shelter. And access to biaxin online canada quality health and care services.ON THE RECORDProfessor Jan Semenza said climate change would impact health.

€œExtreme weather events such as heat or rising sea levels are modulated by a number of vulnerabilities, or factors, such as the human capital in the human population, social capital, financial capital, fiscal capital and natural capital. Exposure can cause injuries, fatalities, drownings, heat- related mortality, morbidity, biaxin online canada displacement. A whole slew of different kinds of risks”.

Semenza said a Matched Case biaxin online canada Control Study was carried out between 1992 and 2012 in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden to determine whether excess precipitation could mobilise and transport pathogens, leading to water-borne outbreaks. This showed there was an association between heavy precipitation events and water-borne outbreaks.Dr Hans Kluge, WHO, said. €œThe relationship biaxin online canada between health and economic development and social cohesion, is linked to climate change.

An economy of wellbeing is a fair and environmentally friendly society where everyone has his social safety protector and where health does not put on an economic burden but is a job creator.What citizens legitimately, and reasonably, expect from the health authorities is to guarantee the fundamental right to universal health coverage. But for that you biaxin online canada need solidarity. If solidarity does not come from the heart, it should come from the brain because no-one is safe until everyone is safe”.Hal Wolf, HIMSS, said.

€œThe stark realisation from COVID-19 is biaxin online canada that borders have nothing to with the spread of disease and no-one is safe until everyone is safe. We do not understand how to bring the most basic healthcare and the most basic service to each and every village, and every country, around the world. We are going to continue to create vulnerabilities that will biaxin online canada start someplace else, spread across the borders and really put everyone in jeopardy, so this idea that strong economies will remain strong and invulnerable to the hardships of individuals, who don’t have the same capabilities, or luxuries, just isn’t true.”He said digital health might help.

€œIt is one of the big equalisers. We will face shortages of biaxin online canada primary care physicians and clinicians so we have to create, through digital health, some of those equalisers, which can spread all the way down to the most basic phone in the most basic village and that’s a positive step forward.“ Professor Sam Shah, faculty of Future Health in the UK also recognised the potential impact of digital to help citizens access services. However, he questioned whether the right technology was reaching the right people but concluded that the digital divide was “probably just a transitory state”.

However, he warned that wider society was becoming biaxin online canada increasingly divided. €œCOVID-19, if anything, has exacerbated, highlighted and exposed the widening of inequalities in society. The gap between those who have and those who biaxin online canada have not.

The results of this are very different, in everything from life expectancy, outcomes and access to services.”Shah said that climate change could cause a range of problems such as respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease, injuries, and premature death. He also believed it would have an impact on mental health and wellbeing biaxin online canada. He said the wider social determinants of health, biaxin online canada such as education, employment and housing, could significantly affect health, particularly mental health.Access sessions from the HIMSS &.

Health 2.0 European Digital Conference 'On Demand' and find all the latest news and deveopments from the event here.Hyland, a Westlake, Ohio-based content services and enterprise imaging technology vendor, signed a definitive agreement to acquire content services platform Alfresco this week.The move follows Hyland's acquisition of German robotic process automation software developer Another Monday this past month."We continue to grow our business and advance our platform organically and via acquisitions," said Bill Priemer, president and CEO of Hyland, in a statement.WHY IT MATTERSHyland, which provides content services for a variety of industries – including financial services, government, higher education, insurance and healthcare – has products in use at more than half of Fortune 100 companies, says the vendor.Its cloud-based, SaaS platform includes security features such as version control, data classification and at-rest data encryption, according to the company's website.Expected to close in the fourth quarter of 2020, Alfresco's entire business of cloud-native content services solutions for enterprises with large volumes of unstructured content will likely be managed under Hyland."With this acquisition Alfresco brings significant geographic and industry experience to Hyland as well as an open source community as a new source of product innovation," said Jay Bhatt, president and CEO of Alfresco. Another Monday, meanwhile, houses four complementary software products for biaxin online canada automation, including tools for automatic process documentation, development, conduction and monitoring."The RPA market is an exciting and challenging space with rapid growth and a vast number of possible applications that organizations can easily combine and integrate for better and more flexible business processes support," said Hans Martens, CEO of Another Monday, in a statement."We see Hyland as the best fit to embed our RPA technology into their powerful automation platform, to truly implement easy, end-to-end automation for everyone," Martens continued.Hyland also this past month announced new enhancements to its platform, including updated mobile capabilities and an improved upgrade process.THE LARGER TRENDSusan deCathelineau, senior vice president of healthcare sales and services at Hyland, told Healthcare IT News earlier this year that unstructured information – such as clinical documents, narratives, consents and images – has largely been overlooked when it comes to interoperability concerns. She also pointed to artificial intelligence as a needed complement to physicians overwhelmed by data and noted that moving to the cloud was an essential shift for the healthcare industry."The hesitancy that used to surround cloud adoption in healthcare now is being replaced by the realization of its ultimate inevitability.

Once again, this shift in mindset largely has to do with data overload," she said.Hyland had at the time recently acquired the blockchain-credentialing vendor LearningMachine, another in a string of acquisitions dating back years.ON THE RECORD"This acquisition will expand our global reach, enabling us to help more organizations achieve their digital transformation goals and biaxin online canada become more informed, empowered and connected," said Priemer in a statement. Kat Jercich is senior editor of Healthcare IT News.Twitter. @kjercichEmail.

Kjercich@himss.orgHealthcare IT News is a HIMSS Media publication.With the increasing spread of COVID-19 infections, the governor of Arizona declared a moratorium on “elective surgeries” on March 19, 2020, in order to conserve hospital PPE supplies and build capacity for potential COVID-19 patients needing hospitalization.The moratorium lasted for six weeks and was finally lifted on May 1, 2020. The end of the suspension resulted in a backlog of more than 3,000 surgical procedures at Phoenix Children’s Hospital.THE PROBLEM HIMSS20 Digital Learn on-demand, earn credit, find products and solutions. Get Started >>.

“While it is true that elective surgeries are typically nonurgent, many of these are medically necessary and important for a child’s health and well-being,” explained Dr. Vinay Vaidya, chief medical information officer at Phoenix Children’s Hospital.“Besides the delay in surgery for the patient, deferring all elective surgeries put a major financial strain on hospitals across the country. The challenge we had to address was how to resume the thousands of deferred surgeries, in addition to the new surgeries that were being added each day.”These operations needed to be conducted in a timely and efficient manner while ensuring utmost safety for patients and healthcare providers.

The scheduling of surgeries is a complex process that involves many players and requires a series of sequential and interdependent actions. The COVID-19 pandemic added magnitudes of complexity to each step in this process.“This was an unprecedented situation that needed coordination across our entire system of care, from executive leadership to surgeons, anesthesiologists, nursing staff, operating room staff, schedulers, and ultimately patients and their families,” Vaidya said.“We needed to build a common communication highway, based on information technology, that would provide real-time visibility through the entire scheduling process, and to all stakeholders.”PROPOSALOnce the moratorium on elective surgeries was lifted, the process of rescheduling the backlog of more than 3,000 cases could begin.Clearly, what was needed was much more than simply throwing additional scheduling staff to work through the backlog one patient at a time, Vaidya said. Amidst a pandemic, staff had to rewrite the rules of how a surgical scheduling process would unfold.“Based on our previous experience of successfully using information technology in general, and data analytic dashboards in particular, it was evident at the very outset that we would need a similar approach to address the complex logistics,” he said.

€œThe solution to resuming these surgeries was the development of a proprietary dashboard, which could facilitate the entire triage of operations.”MEETING THE CHALLENGEGiven the challenges posed by COVID-19, it was important to take into consideration a number of factors such as. The type of surgery, medical necessity and need for hospital/ICU stay, Vaidya explained. These elements needed to be balanced with the availability of PPE, adequate staffing, general and ICU bed availability, and ventilator availability, while ensuring the highest standards of safety for patients and hospital staff.“Using a careful and well-planned approach, a surgical prioritization was developed and uniformly communicated to all surgical teams,” Vaidya said.

€œTo support the assignment of surgical priority for 3,000-plus cases, a new dashboard was created. This technology allowed each surgeon to review all their respective cases, and rapidly assign a priority of high, medium or low to all the backlogged cases, as well as new cases.”As this data was captured electronically, it was used to feed a separate dashboard created specifically for the schedulers, who found it easy to work through the list, based on surgical priority. This significantly improved the efficiency of the process, allowing staff to schedule a much higher number of patients each day than previously possible."The technology allowed for synergies across the enterprise in addressing the multifaceted challenges of resuming these operations."Dr.

Vinay Vaidya, Phoenix Children’s Hospital“For those patients who were successfully scheduled for surgery, it was mandatory to test them for COVID-19 in the 72 hours preceding the date of surgery,” Vaidya noted.“This process was also facilitated using the dashboard, which displayed the patients who were scheduled for COVID-19 testing, those who completed the test, and those who tested negative and were finally cleared for surgery. It also identified patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and needed to have their surgeries postponed.”The entire end-to-end electronic process provided a single enterprise-wide view that allowed streamlined tracking of the patient throughout the multiple steps, not unlike that of an Amazon package, right from ordering to final delivery, Vaidya described.“This also obviated the need for inefficient and time-consuming internal communication via emails, phone calls and spreadsheets between the surgeons, operating room staff and the schedulers,” Vaidya said. €œThe dashboard thus became the de facto central hub and the single source of truth, updated in real time, and extensively used across the entire organization, from the frontline staff right up to senior leadership.”Vaidya added that it is important to point out that the hospital was able to accomplish all of this very quickly.“We already had in place an existing robust data warehouse structure that was receiving feeds from almost every information system used in the hospital, including live feeds from our EHR,” he said.

€œIn addition, much of the data needed for the dashboards had already been prepackaged into ready-to-use analysis cubes that had been previously built for other surgical projects preceding COVID-19.”Finally, a couple of data analysts who were already proficient in rapidly building visually informative, interactive, actionable dashboards using Microsoft’s Power BI software, were able to deliver the dashboards in record time.RESULTSThe one success metric of this project that stands out is that the hospital was not only able to catch up quickly on the backlog of surgeries, but actually ended up performing 166 more surgeries in June and July of this year, compared with the same period last year – 4,199 versus 4,033 – Vaidya reported. This volume speaks to the approach. An extensive use of data, analytics and dashboards to support every stage of the process, from surgeon prioritization to scheduling, testing and finally surgery, he added.“Among the numerous types of surgeries performed during this challenging period, it is worth highlighting the results of our surgical volumes for two very complex surgeries,” he said.“Phoenix Children’s Hospital is nationally recognized as a center of excellence, and draws patients from all across the country for Pectus surgery, done to correct chest wall deformities, and Scoliosis surgery, to correct abnormal spine curvature.

Both are complex, long-duration surgeries that require a hospital stay, and are often planned months in advance to coincide with school summer break.”In the case of Scoliosis surgery, the hospital succeeded in performing more surgeries this year during May through August compared with the same period last year, 95 versus 91. The results for Pectus repair surgery were even more noteworthy. The surgical teams outperformed by 41% the number of surgeries performed this year from May to August compared with the same period last year, 72 versus 51.“The technology allowed for synergies across the enterprise in addressing the multifaceted challenges of resuming these operations,” Vaidya said.

€œThroughout this project, given that patient and provider safety was our highest priority, it is important to point out that no surgeon or anesthesiologist has tested positive for COVID-19 since surgery restarted – a testament to extensive safety protocols that were supported by dashboard usage at every stage.”ADVICE FOR OTHERSThe success of this project no doubt depended on the collaboration and cooperation of many different teams, Vaidya said. However, its foundation was built upon the optimum use of data analytics, and dashboard technology, to provide precise, real-time, actionable information to all the key players, he added.“Fortunately, most hospitals and health systems have developed their electronic capabilities over the last 10 years and are sitting on a trove of data,” he said.“Ensuring that the multiple, often disparate, information systems in a hospital setting all feed their data to a common data warehouse platform allows for optimum use of this data,” he explained. €œMining the data, and providing it to frontline users via intuitive interfaces, turns it into actionable intelligence that produces results.“As IT professionals, we have been promising our health providers that data can be used to produce higher quality outcomes,” he added.

€œUsing technology in the resumption of surgeries is a perfect example of delivering on this promise.”Twitter. @SiwickiHealthITEmail the writer. Bsiwicki@himss.orgHealthcare IT News is a HIMSS Media publication.A woman living in Woodstock, New York, has filed suit against HealthAlliance Hospital and the information management vendor Ciox Health for allegedly declining to release her deceased husband's electronic health records in a non-paper format.The lawyer for the plaintiff, Sherry Russell, said that HealthAlliance Hospital's Broadway campus (formerly known as Kingston Hospital) has repeatedly directed her to Ciox for the records, which in turn allegedly told her she will have to pay 75 cents a page for photocopied paper versions."The maximum charge for electronic medical records under federal law is $6.50," said Russell's lawyer, John Fisher, in an interview with Healthcare IT News.

"But if they charge for the paper copy of the records, it could be thousands of dollars." According to a 2016 guidance from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, HIPAA-covered entities and business associates should either charge $6.50 to fulfill a record request or calculate fees based on the labor cost of doing so.Earlier this year, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services lifted that cap on fees when it comes to organizations charging third parties, such as law firms, when releasing copies of electronic records.

The fee cap for patients, however, remains in place. Fisher says that Russell's alleged treatment is a violation of the HITECH Act, which – among other provisions – requires HIPAA-covered entities to provide patients with an electronic copy of their records. According to Fisher, after the death of Russell's husband, Charlie, in October 2019, she requested his electronic health records in order to file a separate malpractice lawsuit against the hospital.

Without the records, said Fisher, Russell cannot identify the physician involved in her husband's care. Ciox said that it could not comment on pending litigation. The Westchester Medical Health Network, of which HealthAlliance is a part, said it did not comment on ongoing litigation.

WHY IT MATTERSAccording to Fisher, in March 2017, Charlie Russell underwent a chest X-ray as part of a routine procedure. That X-ray showed a mass in his lung, but as Fisher told Healthcare IT News, neither Russell nor his wife were informed of it. The next March, Fisher said, Russell went in for another chest X-ray.

This time, doctors found a six-centimeter mass in his lung. Further imaging showed cancer in his brain and liver.Sherry Russell believes her husband's cancer could have been treated sooner, had the mass been identified and communicated about in 2017. She is planning to file a medical malpractice lawsuit.

The deadline to sue is September 14, said Fisher, but Russell is relying on the electronic health records for her case. Fisher said he has other clients with similar experiences at HealthAlliance concerning their records, and that clients whose cases qualify could join onto Russell's class-action suit filed this past week. "We know firsthand that there are others" that have experienced problems obtaining their electronic health records, said Fisher.

THE LARGER TREND The HIPAA Privacy Right Rule of Access guarantees patient access to physical or digital copies of healthcare records – and noncompliant health systems can face hefty fines. In 2019, Bayfront Health St. Petersburg had to pay the HHS Office of Civil Rights $85,000 and promise remediation after failing to give a pregnant woman timely access to her medical records.Meanwhile, Ciox has been at the center of a number of lawsuits concerning the costs of electronic health records.

In 2018, the company sued HHS over the $6.50 flat fee Fisher invoked, saying that it "bears no rational relationship to the actual costs associated with processing such requests." HHS, in turn, said that it couldn't actually enforce that flat fee against Ciox, because Ciox is a business associate, not a covered entity.This lawsuit eventually led to the agency lifting the cap on fees for third-party organizations' requests for records. And last year, Ciox Health and the Wisconsin-based Aurora Health paid $35.4 million to settle a class-action lawsuit that accused the companies of overcharging for records requests.Studies have shown other hospitals not complying with the HHS-recommended $6.50, with one reportedly charging more than $500 for a 200-page record. ON THE RECORD HealthAlliance, said Fisher, is "stonewalling our client and affecting her ability to bring a lawsuit." Kat Jercich is senior editor of Healthcare IT News.Twitter.

@kjercichEmail. Kjercich@himss.orgHealthcare IT News is a HIMSS Media publication..

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Individuals involved in response and recovery efforts may call OSHA’s toll-free hotline at 800-321-OSHA how to buy cheap biaxin (6742). Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, employers are responsible for providing safe and healthful workplaces for their employees. OSHA’s role is to help ensure these conditions for American working men and women by setting and enforcing standards, and providing training, education and assistance. For more information, visit https://www.osha.gov The mission how to buy cheap biaxin of the Department of Labor is to foster, promote and develop the welfare of the wage earners, job seekers and retirees of the United States. Improve working conditions.

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Current management of calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is limited to palliation of end-stage disease with valve replacement biaxin for sinus infection dosage to relieve left ventricular outflow obstruction. Rather than treating the mechanical consequences of severe CAVS, identification of causal disease pathways at the tissue level might lead to medical therapies that could actually prevent or delay the pathological changes in the valve leaflets. Serum levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity are associated with the presence of CAVS. However, it has been unclear whether this association is due to a cause–effect relationship biaxin for sinus infection dosage.

In this issue of Heart, Perrot and colleagues1 used genetic association studies from eight cohorts to show that CAVS was not associated with any of four single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with Lp-PLA2 activity or mass. These findings suggest that although Lp-PLA2 activity is a biomarker for CAVS unfortunately, it is unlikely to be a therapeutic target (figure 1).Higher Lp-PLA2 activity is significantly associated with the presence of CAVS in patients with heart disease, but variants influencing Lp-PLA2 mass or activity are not associated with CAVS in this large genetic association study. CAVS, calcific aortic valve biaxin for sinus infection dosage stenosis. Lp-PLA2, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 1 Higher Lp-PLA2 activity is significantly associated with the presence of CAVS in patients with heart disease, but variants influencing Lp-PLA2 mass or activity are not associated with CAVS in this large genetic association study.

CAVS, calcific aortic valve stenosis. Lp-PLA2, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2.In an biaxin for sinus infection dosage editorial, Zheng and Dweck2 discuss this article, summarise current ongoing trials of medical therapy for CAVS (table 1) and comment. €˜Strong evidence points towards elevated Lp(a) levels and its associated oxidised phospholipids (OxPL) as causal risk factors for CAVS, suggesting that targeting this lipid-driven, inflammatory pathway has a real chance to translate into therapy capable of mitigating disease. The current study suggests that this association is not mediated by Lp-PLA2 and underlines the importance of scrutinising whether biological factors within pathophysiological pathways are merely biomarkers or actually represent a feasible and causal target.’View this table:Table 1 Ongoing randomised clinical trials of medical therapies in aortic stenosisRheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains the primary cause of valve disease worldwide and contributes significantly to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality.

In a study by Baghel and colleagues3 of 681 pregnant women with RHD, adverse cardiovascular evens occurred in about 15% biaxin for sinus infection dosage of pregnancies. Multivariable predictors of adverse outcomes during pregnancy were prior adverse cardiovascular events, lack of appropriate medical therapy, severity of mitral stenosis, valve replacement and pulmonary hypertension. Based on this analysis, the authors propose a risk score from pregnant women with RHD (table 2).View this table:Table 2 New prognostic score (DEVI’s score) to predict composite adverse cardiac outcome in pregnant women with rheumatic valvular heart diseaseCommenting on this paper, Elkayam and Shmueli4 point out that in about one-fourth of women, the diagnosis of RHD was not known prior to pregnancy and that a late diagnosis often was associated with adverse outcomes. Their editorial biaxin for sinus infection dosage provides a concise summary of optimal management of pregnant women with RHD.

They conclude ‘With proper evaluation and risk stratification prior to pregnancy, a close multidisciplinary follow-up during pregnancy, and close monitoring during labour and delivery as well as the early postpartum period most complications can be prevented.’The importance of psychosocial factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence and outcomes is increasingly recognised. Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, Bu and colleagues5 found that loneliness was associated with CVD, independent of possible confounders and other risk factors, with a 30% higher risk of a new CVD diagnosis in the most lonely people compared with the least lonely people. As O’Keefe and colleagues6 point out, this data is especially important now in the context of social distancing and stay-at-home recommendations and they biaxin for sinus infection dosage offer several approaches to mitigating loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic.The Education in Heart article7 in this issue focuses on the clinical use and prognostic implications of echocardiographic speckle tracking measurements of global longitudinal strain to detect and quantify early systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (figure 2).Left ventricular global longitudinal strain to differentiate between mutation-positive sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac amyloidosis. (A) Apical four-chamber view of a 66-year-old patient known with mutation-positive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

The thickness of the septum was 28 mm and the left ventricular ejection fraction was 55%. (B) The polar map shows markedly impaired longitudinal strain in the septal mid and basal areas and biaxin for sinus infection dosage the global longitudinal strain is impaired (−13.6%). (C) Apical four-chamber view of a 75-year-old patient diagnosed with light chain amyloidosis. There is concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and the ejection fraction is 56%.

Based on speckle tracking echocardiography analysis, the left ventricular global longitudinal strain is impaired biaxin for sinus infection dosage (−12.2%), with typical sparing of the longitudinal strain values in the apical segments (D). ANT, anterior. ANT SEPT, anteroseptal. GS, global strain.

INF, inferior biaxin for sinus infection dosage. LAT, lateral. POST, posterior. SEPT, septal." biaxin for sinus infection dosage data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Left ventricular global longitudinal strain to differentiate between mutation-positive sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac amyloidosis.

(A) Apical four-chamber view of a 66-year-old patient known with mutation-positive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The thickness of the septum was 28 mm and the left ventricular ejection fraction was 55%. (B) The polar map shows markedly impaired longitudinal strain in the septal mid and basal areas and the global longitudinal strain biaxin for sinus infection dosage is impaired (−13.6%). (C) Apical four-chamber view of a 75-year-old patient diagnosed with light chain amyloidosis.

There is concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and the ejection fraction is 56%. Based on speckle tracking echocardiography analysis, biaxin for sinus infection dosage the left ventricular global longitudinal strain is impaired (−12.2%), with typical sparing of the longitudinal strain values in the apical segments (D). ANT, anterior. ANT SEPT, anteroseptal.

GS, global biaxin for sinus infection dosage strain. INF, inferior. LAT, lateral. POST, posterior biaxin for sinus infection dosage.

SEPT, septal.Our Cardiology-in-Focus article by Hudson and Pettit8 provides a clear-eyed but brief discussion and outstanding graphic of the challenges in reconciling the varying definitions of the ‘normal’ values for left ventricular ejection fraction, as stated in different guidelines (figure 3).Categories of left ventricular ejection fraction. EF, ejection fraction. HF, heart biaxin for sinus infection dosage failure. LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 Categories of left ventricular ejection fraction.

EF, ejection fraction. HF, heart biaxin for sinus infection dosage failure. LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.Loneliness is an unpleasant emotional state induced by perceived isolation. Until about 200 years ago, the English word for being on one’s own was ‘oneliness’, a term that connoted solitude, and was generally considered an essential and positive experience in life.

However, solitude biaxin for sinus infection dosage and loneliness are not synonymous. Loneliness is also described as ‘social pain’ from an unwanted lack of connection and intimacy. Artists have likened loneliness to hunger, not only because we can feel it physically, sometimes described as an ache, a hollowness or a sense of coldness, but also because these physical sensations might be the body’s way of telling us that we are missing something that is important to our survival and flourishing.In this issue of Heart, Bu and colleagues,1 in a prospective observational study that comprised approximately 5000 adults followed for about 10 years, found that individuals reporting high levels of loneliness had 30%–48% increased risks of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related hospital admission, respectively, even after adjusting for the usual cardiovascular risk factors.1 This major study has three implications. (1) loneliness should be considered among the most dangerous CVD risk factors.

Rather than treating the mechanical consequences of severe CAVS, identification biaxin online canada of causal disease pathways at the tissue level might lead to medical therapies that could actually prevent or delay the pathological changes in the valve leaflets. Serum levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity are associated with the presence of CAVS. However, it has been unclear whether this association is due to a cause–effect relationship.

In this issue of Heart, Perrot and colleagues1 used genetic association studies from eight cohorts to show that CAVS was not associated with any of four single nucleotide polymorphisms biaxin online canada that are associated with Lp-PLA2 activity or mass. These findings suggest that although Lp-PLA2 activity is a biomarker for CAVS unfortunately, it is unlikely to be a therapeutic target (figure 1).Higher Lp-PLA2 activity is significantly associated with the presence of CAVS in patients with heart disease, but variants influencing Lp-PLA2 mass or activity are not associated with CAVS in this large genetic association study. CAVS, calcific aortic valve stenosis.

Lp-PLA2, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure biaxin online canada 1 Higher Lp-PLA2 activity is significantly associated with the presence of CAVS in patients with heart disease, but variants influencing Lp-PLA2 mass or activity are not associated with CAVS in this large genetic association study. CAVS, calcific aortic valve stenosis. Lp-PLA2, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2.In an editorial, Zheng and Dweck2 discuss this article, summarise current ongoing trials of medical therapy for CAVS (table 1) and comment.

€˜Strong evidence points towards elevated Lp(a) levels biaxin online canada and its associated oxidised phospholipids (OxPL) as causal risk factors for CAVS, suggesting that targeting this lipid-driven, inflammatory pathway has a real chance to translate into therapy capable of mitigating disease. The current study suggests that this association is not mediated by Lp-PLA2 and underlines the importance of scrutinising whether biological factors within pathophysiological pathways are merely biomarkers or actually represent a feasible and causal target.’View this table:Table 1 Ongoing randomised clinical trials of medical therapies in aortic stenosisRheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains the primary cause of valve disease worldwide and contributes significantly to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In a study by Baghel and colleagues3 of 681 pregnant women with RHD, adverse cardiovascular evens occurred in about 15% of pregnancies.

Multivariable predictors of adverse outcomes during pregnancy were prior adverse cardiovascular events, lack of appropriate medical therapy, biaxin online canada severity of mitral stenosis, valve replacement and pulmonary hypertension. Based on this analysis, the authors propose a risk score from pregnant women with RHD (table 2).View this table:Table 2 New prognostic score (DEVI’s score) to predict composite adverse cardiac outcome in pregnant women with rheumatic valvular heart diseaseCommenting on this paper, Elkayam and Shmueli4 point out that in about one-fourth of women, the diagnosis of RHD was not known prior to pregnancy and that a late diagnosis often was associated with adverse outcomes. Their editorial provides a concise summary of optimal management of pregnant women with RHD.

They conclude ‘With proper evaluation and risk stratification prior to pregnancy, a close multidisciplinary follow-up during pregnancy, biaxin online canada and close monitoring during labour and delivery as well as the early postpartum period most complications can be prevented.’The importance of psychosocial factors in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence and outcomes is increasingly recognised. Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, Bu and colleagues5 found that loneliness was associated with CVD, independent of possible confounders and other risk factors, with a 30% higher risk of a new CVD diagnosis in the most lonely people compared with the least lonely people. As O’Keefe and colleagues6 point out, this data is especially important now in the context of social distancing and stay-at-home recommendations and they offer several approaches to mitigating loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic.The Education in Heart article7 in this issue focuses on the clinical use and prognostic implications of echocardiographic speckle tracking measurements of global longitudinal strain to detect and quantify early systolic dysfunction of the left ventricle (figure 2).Left ventricular global longitudinal strain to differentiate between mutation-positive sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac amyloidosis.

(A) Apical four-chamber view of a 66-year-old biaxin online canada patient known with mutation-positive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The thickness of the septum was 28 mm and the left ventricular ejection fraction was 55%. (B) The polar map shows markedly impaired longitudinal strain in the septal mid and basal areas and the global longitudinal strain is impaired (−13.6%).

(C) Apical four-chamber view of a 75-year-old patient diagnosed with light chain amyloidosis biaxin online canada. There is concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and the ejection fraction is 56%. Based on speckle tracking echocardiography analysis, the left ventricular global longitudinal strain is impaired (−12.2%), with typical sparing of the longitudinal strain values in the apical segments (D).

ANT, anterior biaxin online canada. ANT SEPT, anteroseptal. GS, global strain.

INF, inferior. LAT, lateral biaxin online canada. POST, posterior.

SEPT, septal." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 2 Left ventricular global longitudinal strain to differentiate between mutation-positive sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cardiac amyloidosis. (A) Apical biaxin online canada four-chamber view of a 66-year-old patient known with mutation-positive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The thickness of the septum was 28 mm and the left ventricular ejection fraction was 55%.

(B) The polar map shows markedly impaired longitudinal strain in the septal mid and basal areas and the global longitudinal strain is impaired (−13.6%). (C) Apical four-chamber view of a 75-year-old biaxin online canada patient diagnosed with light chain amyloidosis. There is concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle and the ejection fraction is 56%.

Based on speckle tracking echocardiography analysis, the left ventricular global longitudinal strain is impaired (−12.2%), with typical sparing of the longitudinal strain values in the apical segments (D). ANT, anterior biaxin online canada. ANT SEPT, anteroseptal.

GS, global strain. INF, inferior biaxin online canada. LAT, lateral.

POST, posterior. SEPT, septal.Our Cardiology-in-Focus article by Hudson and Pettit8 provides a clear-eyed but brief discussion and outstanding graphic of the challenges in reconciling the varying definitions of the ‘normal’ values for left ventricular ejection fraction, as stated in different guidelines biaxin online canada (figure 3).Categories of left ventricular ejection fraction. EF, ejection fraction.

HF, heart failure. LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction." data-icon-position data-hide-link-title="0">Figure 3 Categories of left ventricular ejection biaxin online canada fraction. EF, ejection fraction.

HF, heart failure. LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.Loneliness is an unpleasant biaxin online canada emotional state induced by perceived isolation. Until about 200 years ago, the English word for being on one’s own was ‘oneliness’, a term that connoted solitude, and was generally considered an essential and positive experience in life.

However, solitude and loneliness are not synonymous. Loneliness is also described as ‘social pain’ from an biaxin online canada unwanted lack of connection and intimacy. Artists have likened loneliness to hunger, not only because we can feel it physically, sometimes described as an ache, a hollowness or a sense of coldness, but also because these physical sensations might be the body’s way of telling us that we are missing something that is important to our survival and flourishing.In this issue of Heart, Bu and colleagues,1 in a prospective observational study that comprised approximately 5000 adults followed for about 10 years, found that individuals reporting high levels of loneliness had 30%–48% increased risks of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related hospital admission, respectively, even after adjusting for the usual cardiovascular risk factors.1 This major study has three implications.

(1) loneliness should be considered among the most dangerous CVD risk factors. (2) feeling lonely is a highly modifiable state that would seemingly respond to lifestyle adjustments as compared with the other foremost psychosocial CVD risk factors—depression and stress/anxiety—which typically require prescription medication or exercise2.

Is biaxin good for bronchitis

NYS announced the 2020 Income and Resource levels in GIS 19 MA/12 – 2020 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates ) and levels based on is biaxin good for bronchitis the Federal Poverty Level are in GIS 20 MA/02 – 2020 Federal Poverty Levels Here is the 2020 HRA Income and Resources Level Chart Non-MAGI - 2020 Disabled, 65+ or Blind ("DAB" or SSI-Related) and have Medicare MAGI (2020) (<. 65, Does not have Medicare)(OR has Medicare and has dependent child <. 18 or <.

19 in school) 138% is biaxin good for bronchitis FPL*** Children <. 5 and pregnant women have HIGHER LIMITS than shown ESSENTIAL PLAN For MAGI-eligible people over MAGI income limit up to 200% FPL No long term care. See info here 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Income $875 (up from $859 in 201) $1284 (up from $1,267 in 2019) $1,468 $1,983 $2,498 $2,127 $2,873 Resources $15,750 (up from $15,450 in 2019) $23,100 (up from $22,800 in 2019) NO LIMIT** NO LIMIT SOURCE for 2019 figures is GIS 18 MA/015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates (PDF).

All of is biaxin good for bronchitis the attachments with the various levels are posted here. NEED TO KNOW PAST MEDICAID INCOME AND RESOURCE LEVELS?. Which household size applies?.

The rules are is biaxin good for bronchitis complicated. See rules here. On the HRA Medicaid Levels chart - Boxes 1 and 2 are NON-MAGI Income and Resource levels -- Age 65+, Blind or Disabled and other adults who need to use "spend-down" because they are over the MAGI income levels.

Box 10 on page 3 are the MAGI income levels -- The Affordable Care Act changed the rules for Medicaid income eligibility for many BUT NOT ALL is biaxin good for bronchitis New Yorkers. People in the "MAGI" category - those NOT on Medicare -- have expanded eligibility up to 138% of the Federal Poverty Line, so may now qualify for Medicaid even if they were not eligible before, or may now be eligible for Medicaid without a "spend-down." They have NO resource limit. Box 3 on page 1 is Spousal Impoverishment levels for Managed Long Term Care &.

Nursing Homes and Box 8 has the Transfer Penalty rates for nursing home eligibility Box is biaxin good for bronchitis 4 has Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities Under Age 65 (still 2017 levels til April 2018) Box 6 are Medicare Savings Program levels (will be updated in April 2018) MAGI INCOME LEVEL of 138% FPL applies to most adults who are not disabled and who do not have Medicare, AND can also apply to adults with Medicare if they have a dependent child/relative under age 18 or under 19 if in school. 42 C.F.R. § 435.4.

Certain populations have an even higher income limit - 224% is biaxin good for bronchitis FPL for pregnant women and babies <. Age 1, 154% FPL for children age 1 - 19. CAUTION.

What is counted as income may not be is biaxin good for bronchitis what you think. For the NON-MAGI Disabled/Aged 65+/Blind, income will still be determined by the same rules as before, explained in this outline and these charts on income disregards. However, for the MAGI population - which is virtually everyone under age 65 who is not on Medicare - their income will now be determined under new rules, based on federal income tax concepts - called "Modifed Adjusted Gross Income" (MAGI).

There are good changes and is biaxin good for bronchitis bad changes. GOOD. Veteran's benefits, Workers compensation, and gifts from family or others no longer count as income.

BAD is biaxin good for bronchitis. There is no more "spousal" or parental refusal for this population (but there still is for the Disabled/Aged/Blind.) and some other rules. For all of the rules see.

ALSO SEE 2018 Manual on Lump Sums and Impact on Public Benefits - with resource rules The income limits increase with the "household size." In other words, the income limit is biaxin good for bronchitis for a family of 5 may be higher than the income limit for a single person. HOWEVER, Medicaid rules about how to calculate the household size are not intuitive or even logical. There are different rules depending on the "category" of the person seeking Medicaid.

Here are the 2 basic categories and the rules for calculating is biaxin good for bronchitis their household size. People who are Disabled, Aged 65+ or Blind - "DAB" or "SSI-Related" Category -- NON-MAGI - See this chart for their household size. These same rules apply to the Medicare Savings Program, with some exceptions explained in this article.

Everyone else -- MAGI - All children and adults under age 65, including people with disabilities who are not is biaxin good for bronchitis yet on Medicare -- this is the new "MAGI" population. Their household size will be determined using federal income tax rules, which are very complicated. New rule is explained in State's directive 13 ADM-03 - Medicaid Eligibility Changes under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 (PDF) pp.

8-10 of the PDF, This PowerPoint by NYLAG on is biaxin good for bronchitis MAGI Budgeting attempts to explain the new MAGI budgeting, including how to determine the Household Size. See slides 28-49. Also seeLegal Aid Society and Empire Justice Center materials OLD RULE used until end of 2013 -- Count the person(s) applying for Medicaid who live together, plus any of their legally responsible relatives who do not receive SNA, ADC, or SSI and reside with an applicant/recipient.

Spouses or legally responsible for one another, and parents are legally responsible is biaxin good for bronchitis for their children under age 21 (though if the child is disabled, use the rule in the 1st "DAB" category. Under this rule, a child may be excluded from the household if that child's income causes other family members to lose Medicaid eligibility. See 18 NYCRR 360-4.2, MRG p.

573, NYS GIS is biaxin good for bronchitis 2000 MA-007 CAUTION. Different people in the same household may be in different "categories" and hence have different household sizes AND Medicaid income and resource limits. If a man is age 67 and has Medicare and his wife is age 62 and not disabled or blind, the husband's household size for Medicaid is determined under Category 1/ Non-MAGI above and his wife's is under Category 2/MAGI.

The following programs is biaxin good for bronchitis were available prior to 2014, but are now discontinued because they are folded into MAGI Medicaid. Prenatal Care Assistance Program (PCAP) was Medicaid for pregnant women and children under age 19, with higher income limits for pregnant woman and infants under one year (200% FPL for pregnant women receiving perinatal coverage only not full Medicaid) than for children ages 1-18 (133% FPL). Medicaid for adults between ages 21-65 who are not disabled and without children under 21 in the household.

It was sometimes known as is biaxin good for bronchitis "S/CC" category for Singles and Childless Couples. This category had lower income limits than DAB/ADC-related, but had no asset limits. It did not allow "spend down" of excess income.

This category has now been subsumed under the new MAGI adult group whose limit is biaxin good for bronchitis is now raised to 138% FPL. Family Health Plus - this was an expansion of Medicaid to families with income up to 150% FPL and for childless adults up to 100% FPL. This has now been folded into the new MAGI adult group whose limit is 138% FPL.

For applicants between 138%-150% FPL, they will be eligible for a new is biaxin good for bronchitis program where Medicaid will subsidize their purchase of Qualified Health Plans on the Exchange. PAST INCOME &. RESOURCE LEVELS -- Past Medicaid income and resource levels in NYS are shown on these oldNYC HRA charts for 2001 through 2019, in chronological order.

These include Medicaid levels is biaxin good for bronchitis for MAGI and non-MAGI populations, Child Health Plus, MBI-WPD, Medicare Savings Programs and other public health programs in NYS. This article was authored by the Evelyn Frank Legal Resources Program of New York Legal Assistance Group.A huge barrier to people returning to the community from nursing homes is the high cost of housing. One way New York State is trying to address that barrier is with the Special Housing Disregard that allows certain members of Managed Long Term Care or FIDA plans to keep more of their income to pay for rent or other shelter costs, rather than having to "spend down" their "excess income" or spend-down on the cost of Medicaid home care.

The special income standard for housing expenses is biaxin good for bronchitis helps pay for housing expenses to help certain nursing home or adult home residents to safely transition back to the community with MLTC. Originally it was just for former nursing home residents but in 2014 it was expanded to include people who lived in adult homes. GIS 14/MA-017 Since you are allowed to keep more of your income, you may no longer need to use a pooled trust.

KNOW YOUR RIGHTS - FACT SHEET on THREE ways to Reduce Spend-down, including is biaxin good for bronchitis this Special Income Standard. September 2018 NEWS -- Those already enrolled in MLTC plans before they are admitted to a nursing home or adult home may obtain this budgeting upon discharge, if they meet the other criteria below. "How nursing home administrators, adult home operators and MLTC plans should identify individuals who are eligible for the special income standard" and explains their duties to identify eligible individuals, and the MLTC plan must notify the local DSS that the individual may qualify.

"Nursing home administrators, nursing home discharge planning staff, adult home operators and MLTC health plans are encouraged to identify individuals who may qualify for the special income standard, if they can be safely discharged back to the community from a nursing home and enroll in, is biaxin good for bronchitis or remain enrolled in, an MLTC plan. Once an individual has been accepted into an MLTC plan, the MLTC plan must notify the individual's local district of social services that the transition has occurred and that the individual may qualify for the special income standard. The special income standard will be effective upon enrollment into the MLTC plan, or, for nursing home residents already enrolled in an MLTC plan, the month of discharge to the community.

Questions regarding the special income standard may be directed to DOH at 518-474-8887 is biaxin good for bronchitis. Who is eligible for this special income standard?. must be age 18+, must have been in a nursing home or an adult home for 30 days or more, must have had Medicaid pay toward the nursing home care, and must enroll in or REMAIN ENROLLED IN a Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) plan or FIDA plan upon leaving the nursing home or adult home must have a housing expense if married, spouse may not receive a "spousal impoverishment" allowance once the individual is enrolled in MLTC.

How much is biaxin good for bronchitis is the allowance?. The rates vary by region and change yearly. Region Counties Deduction (2020) Central Broome, Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Madison, Oneida, Onondaga, Oswego, St.

Lawrence, Tioga, Tompkins $436 Long Island Nassau, Suffolk $1,361 NYC Bronx, Kings, Manhattan, Queens, Richmond $1,451 (up from 1,300 in 2019) Northeastern Albany, Clinton, Columbia, Delaware, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Greene, Hamilton, Montgomery, Otsego, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Warren, Washington $483 North Metropolitan Dutchess, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster, Westchester $930 Rochester Chemung, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Schuyler, Seneca, Steuben, Wayne, Yates $444 Western Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Niagara, Orleans, Wyoming $386 Past rates published as follows, available on DOH website 2020 rates published in Attachment I to GIS 19 MA/12 – 2020 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates 2019 rates published is biaxin good for bronchitis in Attachment 1 to GIS 18/MA015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates 2018 rates published in GIS 17 MA/020 - 2018 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates. The guidance on how the standardized amount of the disregard is calculated is found in NYS DOH 12- ADM-05. 2017 rate -- GIS 16 MA/018 - 2016 Medicaid Only Income and Resource Levels and Spousal Impoverishment Standards Attachment 12016 rate -- GIS 15-MA/0212015 rate -- Were not posted by DOH but were updated in WMS.

2015 Central $382 Long Island $1,147 NYC $1,001 Northeastern $440 N. Metropolitan $791 Rochester $388 Western $336 2014 rate -- GIS-14-MA/017 HOW DOES IT WORK?. Here is a sample budget for a single person in NYC with Social Security income of $2,386/month paying a Medigap premium of $261/mo.

Gross monthly income $2,575.50 DEDUCT Health insurance premiums (Medicare Part B) - 135.50 (Medigap) - 261.00 DEDUCT Unearned income disregard - 20 DEDUCT Shelter deduction (NYC—2019) - 1,300 DEDUCT Income limit for single (2019) - 859 Excess income or Spend-down $0 WITH NO SPEND-DOWN, May NOT NEED POOLED TRUST!. HOW TO OBTAIN THE HOUSING DISREGARD. When you are ready to leave the nursing home or adult home, or soon after you leave, you or your MLTC plan must request that your local Medicaid program change your Medicaid budget to give you the Housing Disregard.

See September 2018 NYS DOH Medicaid Update that requires MLTC plan to help you ask for it. The procedures in NYC are explained in this Troubleshooting guide. NYC Medicaid program prefers that your MLTC plan file the request, using Form MAP-3057E - Special income housing Expenses NH-MLTC.pdf and Form MAP-3047B - MLTC/NHED Cover Sheet Form MAP-259f (revised 7-31-18)(page 7 of PDF)(DIscharge Notice) - NH must file with HRA upon discharge, certifying resident was informed of availability of this disregard.

GOVERNMENT DIRECTIVES (beginning with oldest). NYS DOH 12- ADM-05 - Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Individuals Discharged from a Nursing Facility who Enroll into the Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) Program Attachment II - OHIP-0057 - Notice of Intent to Change Medicaid Coverage, (Recipient Discharged from a Skilled Nursing Facility and Enrolled in a Managed Long Term Care Plan) Attachment III - Attachment III – OHIP-0058 - Notice of Intent to Change Medicaid Coverage, (Recipient Disenrolled from a Managed Long Term Care Plan, No Special Income Standard) MLTC Policy 13.02. MLTC Housing Disregard NYC HRA Medicaid Alert Special Income Standard for housing expenses NH-MLTC 2-9-2013.pdf 2018-07-28 HRA MICSA ALERT Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Individuals Discharged from a Nursing Facility and who Enroll into the MLTC Program - update on previous policy.

References Form MAP-259f (revised 7-31-18)(page 7 of PDF)(Discharge Notice) - NH must file with HRA upon discharge, certifying resident was informed of availability of this disregard.

65, Does not have Medicare)(OR biaxin online canada has Medicare and has dependent child <. 18 or <. 19 in school) 138% FPL*** Children <.

5 and pregnant women have HIGHER LIMITS than shown ESSENTIAL PLAN For MAGI-eligible people over MAGI income limit biaxin online canada up to 200% FPL No long term care. See info here 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 Income $875 (up from $859 in 201) $1284 (up from $1,267 in 2019) $1,468 $1,983 $2,498 $2,127 $2,873 Resources $15,750 (up from $15,450 in 2019) $23,100 (up from $22,800 in 2019) NO LIMIT** NO LIMIT SOURCE for 2019 figures is GIS 18 MA/015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates (PDF). All of the attachments with the various levels are posted here.

NEED TO KNOW PAST MEDICAID biaxin online canada INCOME AND RESOURCE LEVELS?. Which household size applies?. The rules are complicated.

See biaxin online canada rules here. On the HRA Medicaid Levels chart - Boxes 1 and 2 are NON-MAGI Income and Resource levels -- Age 65+, Blind or Disabled and other adults who need to use "spend-down" because they are over the MAGI income levels. Box 10 on page 3 are the MAGI income levels -- The Affordable Care Act changed the rules for Medicaid income eligibility for many BUT NOT ALL New Yorkers.

People in the "MAGI" category - those NOT on Medicare -- have expanded eligibility up to 138% of the Federal Poverty Line, so may now qualify for Medicaid even if they were not eligible before, biaxin online canada or may now be eligible for Medicaid without a "spend-down." They have NO resource limit. Box 3 on page 1 is Spousal Impoverishment levels for Managed Long Term Care &. Nursing Homes and Box 8 has the Transfer Penalty rates for nursing home eligibility Box 4 has Medicaid Buy-In for Working People with Disabilities Under Age 65 (still 2017 levels til April 2018) Box 6 are Medicare Savings Program levels (will be updated in April 2018) MAGI INCOME LEVEL of 138% FPL applies to most adults who are not disabled and who do not have Medicare, AND can also apply to adults with Medicare if they have a dependent child/relative under age 18 or under 19 if in school.

42 biaxin online canada C.F.R. § 435.4. Certain populations have an even higher income limit - 224% FPL for pregnant women and babies <.

Age 1, 154% biaxin online canada FPL for children age 1 - 19. CAUTION. What is counted as income may not be what you think.

For the NON-MAGI Disabled/Aged 65+/Blind, income will still be determined by the same rules as before, explained in biaxin online canada this outline and these charts on income disregards. However, for the MAGI population - which is virtually everyone under age 65 who is not on Medicare - their income will now be determined under new rules, based on federal income tax concepts - called "Modifed Adjusted Gross Income" (MAGI). There are good changes and bad changes.

GOOD biaxin online canada. Veteran's benefits, Workers compensation, and gifts from family or others no longer count as income. BAD.

There is no more "spousal" or parental refusal for this population (but biaxin online canada there still is for the Disabled/Aged/Blind.) and some other rules. For all of the rules see. ALSO SEE 2018 Manual on Lump Sums and Impact on Public Benefits - with resource rules The income limits increase with the "household size." In other words, the income limit for a family of 5 may be higher than the income limit for a single person.

HOWEVER, Medicaid rules biaxin online canada about how to calculate the household size are not intuitive or even logical. There are different rules depending on the "category" of the person seeking Medicaid. Here are the 2 basic categories and the rules for calculating their household size.

People who are Disabled, Aged 65+ or Blind - "DAB" or "SSI-Related" Category -- NON-MAGI - biaxin online canada See this chart for their household size. These same rules apply to the Medicare Savings Program, with some exceptions explained in this article. Everyone else -- MAGI - All children and adults under age 65, including people with disabilities who are not yet on Medicare -- this is the new "MAGI" population.

Their household size will be determined using federal income tax rules, which are biaxin online canada very complicated. New rule is explained in State's directive 13 ADM-03 - Medicaid Eligibility Changes under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 (PDF) pp. 8-10 of the PDF, This PowerPoint by NYLAG on MAGI Budgeting attempts to explain the new MAGI budgeting, including how to determine the Household Size.

See slides 28-49 biaxin online canada. Also seeLegal Aid Society and Empire Justice Center materials OLD RULE used until end of 2013 -- Count the person(s) applying for Medicaid who live together, plus any of their legally responsible relatives who do not receive SNA, ADC, or SSI and reside with an applicant/recipient. Spouses or legally responsible for one another, and parents are legally responsible for their children under age 21 (though if the child is disabled, use the rule in the 1st "DAB" category.

Under this rule, a child may be excluded from the household if that child's income causes other biaxin online canada family members to lose Medicaid eligibility. See 18 NYCRR 360-4.2, MRG p. 573, NYS GIS 2000 MA-007 CAUTION.

Different people in the same household may be in different "categories" and hence have different household sizes AND Medicaid income and biaxin online canada resource limits. If a man is age 67 and has Medicare and his wife is age 62 and not disabled or blind, the husband's household size for Medicaid is determined under Category 1/ Non-MAGI above and his wife's is under Category 2/MAGI. The following programs were available prior to 2014, but are now discontinued because they are folded into MAGI Medicaid.

Prenatal Care biaxin online canada Assistance Program (PCAP) was Medicaid for pregnant women and children under age 19, with higher income limits for pregnant woman and infants under one year (200% FPL for pregnant women receiving perinatal coverage only not full Medicaid) than for children ages 1-18 (133% FPL). Medicaid for adults between ages 21-65 who are not disabled and without children under 21 in the household. It was sometimes known as "S/CC" category for Singles and Childless Couples.

This category had lower income limits than DAB/ADC-related, but biaxin online canada had no asset limits. It did not allow "spend down" of excess income. This category has now been subsumed under the new MAGI adult group whose limit is now raised to 138% FPL.

Family Health Plus - this was an biaxin online canada expansion of Medicaid to families with income up to 150% FPL and for childless adults up to 100% FPL. This has now been folded into the new MAGI adult group whose limit is 138% FPL. For applicants between 138%-150% FPL, they will be eligible for a new program where Medicaid will subsidize their purchase of Qualified Health Plans on the Exchange.

PAST INCOME biaxin online canada &. RESOURCE LEVELS -- Past Medicaid income and resource levels in NYS are shown on these oldNYC HRA charts for 2001 through 2019, in chronological order. These include Medicaid levels for MAGI and non-MAGI populations, Child Health Plus, MBI-WPD, Medicare Savings Programs and other public health programs in NYS.

This article was biaxin online canada authored by the Evelyn Frank Legal Resources Program of New York Legal Assistance Group.A huge barrier to people returning to the community from nursing homes is the high cost of housing. One way New York State is trying to address that barrier is with the Special Housing Disregard that allows certain members of Managed Long Term Care or FIDA plans to keep more of their income to pay for rent or other shelter costs, rather than having to "spend down" their "excess income" or spend-down on the cost of Medicaid home care. The special income standard for housing expenses helps pay for housing expenses to help certain nursing home or adult home residents to safely transition back to the community with MLTC.

Originally it was just for former nursing home residents but in 2014 biaxin online canada it was expanded to include people who lived in adult homes. GIS 14/MA-017 Since you are allowed to keep more of your income, you may no longer need to use a pooled trust. KNOW YOUR RIGHTS - FACT SHEET on THREE ways to Reduce Spend-down, including this Special Income Standard.

September 2018 NEWS -- Those already enrolled in MLTC plans before they are admitted to a nursing home or adult home may obtain this budgeting upon discharge, if they meet the other criteria below biaxin online canada. "How nursing home administrators, adult home operators and MLTC plans should identify individuals who are eligible for the special income standard" and explains their duties to identify eligible individuals, and the MLTC plan must notify the local DSS that the individual may qualify. "Nursing home administrators, nursing home discharge planning staff, adult home operators and MLTC health plans are encouraged to identify individuals who may qualify for the special income standard, if they can be safely discharged back to the community from a nursing home and enroll in, or remain enrolled in, an MLTC plan.

Once an individual has been accepted into an MLTC plan, the MLTC plan must notify the individual's local district of social services that the transition has occurred and that the individual may qualify for the special income standard. The special income standard will be effective upon enrollment into the MLTC plan, or, for nursing home residents already enrolled in an MLTC plan, the month of discharge to the community. Questions regarding the special income standard may be directed to DOH at 518-474-8887.

Who is eligible for this special income standard?. must be age 18+, must have been in a nursing home or an adult home for 30 days or more, must have had Medicaid pay toward the nursing home care, and must enroll in or REMAIN ENROLLED IN a Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) plan or FIDA plan upon leaving the nursing home or adult home must have a housing expense if married, spouse may not receive a "spousal impoverishment" allowance once the individual is enrolled in MLTC. How much is the allowance?.

The rates vary by region and change yearly. Region Counties Deduction (2020) Central Broome, Cayuga, Chenango, Cortland, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, Madison, Oneida, Onondaga, Oswego, St. Lawrence, Tioga, Tompkins $436 Long Island Nassau, Suffolk $1,361 NYC Bronx, Kings, Manhattan, Queens, Richmond $1,451 (up from 1,300 in 2019) Northeastern Albany, Clinton, Columbia, Delaware, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Greene, Hamilton, Montgomery, Otsego, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Schenectady, Schoharie, Warren, Washington $483 North Metropolitan Dutchess, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Sullivan, Ulster, Westchester $930 Rochester Chemung, Livingston, Monroe, Ontario, Schuyler, Seneca, Steuben, Wayne, Yates $444 Western Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Niagara, Orleans, Wyoming $386 Past rates published as follows, available on DOH website 2020 rates published in Attachment I to GIS 19 MA/12 – 2020 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates 2019 rates published in Attachment 1 to GIS 18/MA015 - 2019 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates 2018 rates published in GIS 17 MA/020 - 2018 Medicaid Levels and Other Updates.

The guidance on how the standardized amount of the disregard is calculated is found in NYS DOH 12- ADM-05. 2017 rate -- GIS 16 MA/018 - 2016 Medicaid Only Income and Resource Levels and Spousal Impoverishment Standards Attachment 12016 rate -- GIS 15-MA/0212015 rate -- Were not posted by DOH but were updated in WMS. 2015 Central $382 Long Island $1,147 NYC $1,001 Northeastern $440 N.

Metropolitan $791 Rochester $388 Western $336 2014 rate -- GIS-14-MA/017 HOW DOES IT WORK?. Here is a sample budget for a single person in NYC with Social Security income of $2,386/month paying a Medigap premium of $261/mo. Gross monthly income $2,575.50 DEDUCT Health insurance premiums (Medicare Part B) - 135.50 (Medigap) - 261.00 DEDUCT Unearned income disregard - 20 DEDUCT Shelter deduction (NYC—2019) - 1,300 DEDUCT Income limit for single (2019) - 859 Excess income or Spend-down $0 WITH NO SPEND-DOWN, May NOT NEED POOLED TRUST!.

HOW TO OBTAIN THE HOUSING DISREGARD. When you are ready to leave the nursing home or adult home, or soon after you leave, you or your MLTC plan must request that your local Medicaid program change your Medicaid budget to give you the Housing Disregard. See September 2018 NYS DOH Medicaid Update that requires MLTC plan to help you ask for it.

The procedures in NYC are explained in this Troubleshooting guide. NYC Medicaid program prefers that your MLTC plan file the request, using Form MAP-3057E - Special income housing Expenses NH-MLTC.pdf and Form MAP-3047B - MLTC/NHED Cover Sheet Form MAP-259f (revised 7-31-18)(page 7 of PDF)(DIscharge Notice) - NH must file with HRA upon discharge, certifying resident was informed of availability of this disregard. GOVERNMENT DIRECTIVES (beginning with oldest).

NYS DOH 12- ADM-05 - Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Individuals Discharged from a Nursing Facility who Enroll into the Managed Long Term Care (MLTC) Program Attachment II - OHIP-0057 - Notice of Intent to Change Medicaid Coverage, (Recipient Discharged from a Skilled Nursing Facility and Enrolled in a Managed Long Term Care Plan) Attachment III - Attachment III – OHIP-0058 - Notice of Intent to Change Medicaid Coverage, (Recipient Disenrolled from a Managed Long Term Care Plan, No Special Income Standard) MLTC Policy 13.02. MLTC Housing Disregard NYC HRA Medicaid Alert Special Income Standard for housing expenses NH-MLTC 2-9-2013.pdf 2018-07-28 HRA MICSA ALERT Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Individuals Discharged from a Nursing Facility and who Enroll into the MLTC Program - update on previous policy. References Form MAP-259f (revised 7-31-18)(page 7 of PDF)(Discharge Notice) - NH must file with HRA upon discharge, certifying resident was informed of availability of this disregard.

GIS 18 MA/012 - Special Income Standard for Housing Expenses for Certain Managed Long-Term Care Enrollees Who are Discharged from a Nursing Home issued Sept.

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SALT LAKE CITY, who can buy biaxin Sept. 8, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Health Catalyst, Inc. ("Health Catalyst," Nasdaq who can buy biaxin.

HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, today announced that it has completed its seventh annual and first ever virtual Healthcare Analytics Summit (HAS), with record registration of more than 3,500 attendees. Keynotes included Dr who can buy biaxin. Amy Abernethy, Principal Deputy Commissioner and Acting CIO of the U.S.

Food and Drug Administration, Michael Dowling, CEO of Northwell Health, who can buy biaxin Vice Admiral Raquel Bono, MD, and many others. Other business updates include:The Vitalware, LLC ("VitalWare"), transaction has closed, and integration is underway of the Yakima, Washington-based provider of revenue workflow optimization and analytics SaaS technology solutions for health organizations. This is another example of Health who can buy biaxin Catalyst's ability to scale software on top of its cloud-based Data Operating System (DOS™).

DOS will further enhance the analytics insights made available by Vitalware's technology by combining charge and revenue data with claims, cost, and quality data. Vitalware's flagship offering is a Best in KLAS chargemaster management solution that delivers results for the complex regulatory and compliance functions needed by all healthcare provider systems. "As who can buy biaxin announced on August 11, 2020, we entered into an acquisition agreement to acquire Vitalware and expected to close the acquisition in Q3 or Q4 of 2020.

We are pleased to announce that we closed the acquisition on September 1, 2020. We are thrilled to formalize the combination of our solutions for the benefit of our customers and the industry," said who can buy biaxin CEO Dan Burton. On its upcoming Q3 2020 earnings call, Health Catalyst will share the impact of Vitalware on its Q3 2020 financial performance, which will not be significant given the timing of the acquisition, as well as update its full year 2020 guidance to include the impact of Vitalware.

Health Catalyst Co-Founder Steve Barlow has returned from his three-year full-time volunteer mission for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, having served as Mission President of the Ecuador who can buy biaxin Quito Mission. He has rejoined Health Catalyst's companywide Leadership Team as a Senior Vice President, responsible for some of the company's largest customer relationships. Dan Burton said, "We couldn't be more excited who can buy biaxin about Steve's return to Health Catalyst.

His energy, dedication and commitment to transforming healthcare launched our journey and will continue to make us better and stronger. Steve is leading and overseeing all aspects of our partnerships with some of our largest and longest-standing customers. Steve's extraordinary experience and who can buy biaxin capability enable him to be a critical partner and leader in enabling these customers' continued improvement and success." "My experience over the past three years in Ecuador reinforced for me how fortunate I am to be in a country with high-quality healthcare," said Barlow.

"It has been invigorating to return to Health Catalyst and witness the incredible growth and expansion that has occurred over the past few years. We are better positioned than ever before to achieve our mission of being who can buy biaxin the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. I am grateful to be reunited with our longstanding team members and customers, and I'm thrilled to get to know and work alongside our new customers and teammates in this critical work." Effective October 1, 2020, Chief Technology Officer Dale Sanders will be transitioning to a Senior Advisor role with Health Catalyst, and the company is pleased to announce that one of Dale's longtime protégés and colleagues, Bryan Hinton, will serve as Health Catalyst's next Chief Technology Officer.

Hinton joined Health Catalyst in 2012 who can buy biaxin and currently serves as the Senior Vice President and General Manager of the DOS Platform Business. He will continue to lead this business in addition to assuming the responsibilities of CTO. He has been instrumental in the development and integration of DOS and has been working directly who can buy biaxin with Dale and other technology leaders at Health Catalyst for many years.

His experience prior to joining Health Catalyst includes four years with the .NET Development Center of Excellence at The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, where he established the architectural guidance of all .NET projects. Previously, at Intel, he was responsible for the development and implementation of Intel's factory data warehouse product installed at Intel global factories. Hinton graduated from Brigham Young University with a who can buy biaxin BS in Computer Science.

"Dale has been central to Health Catalyst's growth and success and we are grateful to him for his many years of service to our company and to the broader healthcare industry," said Dan Burton, CEO of Health Catalyst. "Thanks to Dale's vision, passion, innovative who can buy biaxin thinking and broad-based industry experience and perspective, Health Catalyst has grown from a handful of clients to a large number of organizations relying on us as their digital transformation partner, helping the healthcare ecosystem to constantly learn and improve. Dale's technology leadership was critical to the company's overall maturation, and I am convinced that we could not have grown and scaled as we have without Dale's foundational leadership and contributions.

We are grateful to continue our association with Dale in the months and years ahead in his next role as a Senior Advisor to the company." Burton added, "We are thrilled to see Bryan Hinton take on this added role after having demonstrated his technology leadership prowess during the course of his tenure at Health Catalyst and who can buy biaxin having been mentored by Dale for many years. Bryan is well-prepared and ready for this additional responsibility, and we extend our congratulations to him." "I feel like a parent saying goodbye to my kids at their college graduation," said Dale Sanders. "Many of the concepts we first developed and applied over 20 years ago who can buy biaxin at Intermountain and then later refined during my tenure as CIO at Northwestern had a big influence on our technology and products at Health Catalyst.

The vision of the Data Operating System and its application ecosystem originated in the real-world healthcare operations and research trenches of Northwestern. At Health Catalyst, I had the wonderful opportunity to lead the teams who made that vision a reality for the benefit of the entire industry. None of it would have been possible without Bryan Hinton leading the who can buy biaxin DOS team and Eric Just and Dan Unger leading the application development teams.

We've been working side-by-side for many years to make the vision real. Bryan is who can buy biaxin the consummate modern CTO from outside of healthcare that healthcare needs. I've always described Eric as having a manufacturing engineer's mindset with a healthcare data and software engineer's skills, with Dan Unger leveraging his deep domain expertise in financial transformation to oversee the development of meaningful applications and solutions so relevant for CFOs.

I'm honored and thrilled to step aside and turn who can buy biaxin the future over to their very capable hands. Under their leadership, the best is yet to come for Health Catalyst's technology." About Health CatalystHealth Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, and is committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing who can buy biaxin trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial and operational improvements.

Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed.Health Catalyst Media Contact:Kristen BerrySenior Vice President, Public Relations+1 (617) 234-4123HealthCatalyst@we-worldwide.com View original content to download multimedia:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/health-catalyst-completes-hosting-of-the-largest-ever-healthcare-analytics-summit-and-announces-the-close-of-the-vitalware-acquisition-301125125.htmlSOURCE Health CatalystNEW YORK and SALT LAKE CITY, Aug. 12, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Northwell Health today joined Health Catalyst, Inc. ("Health Catalyst," who can buy biaxin Nasdaq.

HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, in announcing a long-term strategic partnership to transform the quality of patient care by using data and analytics to better anticipate and respond to the evolving needs of patients, providers and payers in today's rapidly evolving healthcare ecosystem. In this partnership, Health Catalyst will provide solutions to allow for increased cloud-based reliance on data and analytics, while sharing insights and best practices from a decade of support to who can buy biaxin hundreds of other healthcare clients. This will accelerate greater efficiency in data mapping and data storage to/with the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and the affordable emergence of an enterprise solution for meaningful and measurable clinical, financial and operational improvements.

The solutions will who can buy biaxin be used across the Northwell Health enterprise, which includes the Feinstein Institute and Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra. "Northwell Health's goal is a simple one that has not changed since our inception. Be better tomorrow than who can buy biaxin we are today.

Partnering with Health Catalyst will allow us to accelerate the generation of critical insights for one of the world's most diverse patient populations which includes more than 11 million individuals who will potentially turn to us for care," said Michael Dowling, President and CEO of Northwell Health. "Health Catalyst's Augmented Intelligence (AI) and data science experience and expertise, along with our shared cultural attributes and mission alignment, will allow us to use data-informed decision making to achieve our shared commitment of transforming healthcare for the communities we serve."Northwell Health is New York State's largest health care provider and private employer, with 23 hospitals, nearly 800 outpatient facilities and more than 18,500 affiliated physicians. More than 11,000 COVID-19 patients have received care from Northwell's 16,000-plus nurses and 4,000 employed doctors, including members of Northwell Health Physician Partners, and using 1,600 additional COVID-19 focused beds."We are honored to have the opportunity to join Northwell Health on its mission-driven journey to transform who can buy biaxin healthcare," said Dan Burton, CEO of Health Catalyst.

"We have deep respect for our Northwell colleagues and are excited about combining our Solution with Northwell's team members' experience, knowledge and passion for improvement. We are also honored to have Northwell's CEO Michael Dowling as a keynote speaker at Health Catalyst's upcoming Healthcare Analytics Summit (HAS), where we'll hear his important perspectives on the COVID-19 pandemic and the future of healthcare delivery." This partnership will be built using Health Catalyst's DOS™ technology, a data-first analytics and application platform, to capture and map raw data into meaningful, who can buy biaxin actionable insights. Northwell Health will also immediately have access to Health Catalyst's growing suite of COVID-19 solutions, including but not limited to a registry, staff and patient tracker and capacity planning tool.

Broadly sharing Northwell Health's data driven insights from its COVID-19 work is another significant opportunity for transformational care."Health Catalyst will become our data and analytics backbone, as their Solutions will enable our organization to take who can buy biaxin our current data adoption and transformation to entirely new heights," said John Bosco, Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer at Northwell Health. "We are looking forward to leaning on DOS to create an affordable, yet innovative enterprise solution that will further enable transformative care to the patients we serve."About Northwell HealthNorthwell Health is New York State's largest health care provider and private employer, with 23 hospitals, 665 outpatient facilities and more than 18,500 affiliated physicians. We care for over two million people annually in the New York metro area and beyond, who can buy biaxin thanks to philanthropic support from our communities.

Our 66,000 employees – 16,000-plus nurses and 4,000 employed doctors, including members of Northwell Health Physician Partners – are working to change health care for the better. We are making breakthroughs in medicine at the Feinstein Institute for who can buy biaxin Medical Research. We are training the next generation of medical professionals at the visionary Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell and the Hofstra Northwell School of Graduate Nursing and Physician Assistant Studies.

For information on our more than 100 medical specialties, visit Northwell.edu.About Health CatalystHealth Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, and is committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial who can buy biaxin and operational improvements. Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed.

Northwell Health Media Contact:Michelle Pinto516-321-6708mpinto@northwell.edu Health Catalyst Media Contact:Kristen BerrySenior Vice President, Public Relations+1 (617) 234-4123+1 (774) 573-0455 (m)kberry@we-worldwide.com View original content to download multimedia:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/health-catalyst-and-northwell-health-partner-to-transform-patient-care-with-cloud-based-data-and-analytics-enterprise-solution-301110803.htmlSOURCE Health CatalystPeople tried to escape a heat wave baking the West by heading to Castaic Lake in California on Saturday.Credit...Marcio Jose Sanchez/Associated PressFor many Americans, Labor Day is who can buy biaxin a goodbye to summer before children go back to school and cold weather arrives. But public health experts are worried that in the midst of a pandemic, the traditional last blast of summer could translate into disaster this fall.After the Memorial Day and Fourth of July weekends, cases of Covid-19 surged around the country after people held family gatherings or congregated in large groups. Dr.

Anthony S. Fauci, the country’s top infectious disease expert, said he wanted people to enjoy Labor Day weekend but urged them to take precautions to avoid a post-holiday spike in cases. Take the fun outdoors.

Avoid crowds, keep gatherings to 10 people or fewer. And even outdoors, where transmission risk is much lower, you still need to wear a mask and practice physical distancing if you’re spending time with people outside your household.“We’ve been through this before,” Dr. Fauci said.

€œWe see what happens over holiday weekends, and we want to make sure we don’t have an uptick. What I have been saying is kind of a plea to the American public, and to the younger people, that they can enjoy themselves over Labor Day weekend, but please be aware of and adhere to public health guidelines.”In terms of daily case counts, the United States over all was in worse shape going into Labor Day weekend than it was for Memorial Day weekend. The nation is now averaging about 40,000 new confirmed cases per day, up from about 22,000 per day ahead of Memorial Day weekend.

Dr. Fauci said that the number of daily cases in the United States was “unacceptably high” and that a spike in Covid-19 infections following Labor Day would make it far tougher to control the spread of the disease in the fall as people head indoors.“We’d like to get a good head start into the fall by getting our daily cases and our test positivity as low as possible,” Dr. Fauci said.

€œIf we get another resurgence of infections after Labor Day, it will make it that much more difficult to get that baseline down and make it much more problematic as we enter the fall season.”Public health experts said it might be even more challenging to persuade people to curtail their Labor Day weekend plans, compared with past holiday weekends, because so many people are suffering from pandemic fatigue after six months of social-distancing restrictions, closures and separation from loved ones.“People are getting tired of taking these precautions and of having their lives upended,” said Eleanor J. Murray, an assistant professor of epidemiology at the Boston University School of Public Health. €œThey’re missing their friends and family, and everyone wishes things were back to normal.

That’s totally understandable, but unfortunately we don’t get a say, really.”Dr. Murray said it was important for people to remember that just one gathering could lead to spikes in cases that would affect many more people. She noted that a wedding in Maine with an estimated 65 guests had resulted in 147 infections, including three deaths among people who didn’t even attend the wedding.Dr.

Murray said that if people decided to ignore public health guidelines this weekend, at the very least they should place themselves in quarantine for two weeks after the event. €œIf those people at the wedding had said, ‘This is a risk I’m personally willing to take,’ but after the wedding they had quarantined, then the maximum number of cases would have been the 65 wedding attendees,” she said.Although it’s safer to gather outside than indoors, the virus can still be transmitted in outdoor spaces when people gather in large groups or stand close to one another for long periods of time. Alcohol can loosen inhibitions, prompting people to forget about social distancing.

Loud music can prompt people to stand closer and speak louder, which can spew more viral particles and put you at risk even if you’re wearing a mask, health experts say.Dr. Murray said that whatever plan you have for the holiday weekend, ask yourself how you can make it safer for everyone.“People need to socialize and to see people who are important to them,” Dr. Murray said.

€œIf you were thinking of being indoors, go outdoors. If you were thinking about being outdoors, spread out further. Wear masks.

Think about what you can do to move down the risk continuum.”While many people feel safer socializing with family members, a number of outbreaks have been traced back to family parties that included relatives from more than one household. In Maryland, 44 percent of the state’s new cases were traced back to family gatherings, compared with 23 percent from house parties and 21 percent to outdoor events, according to a tweet posted by Gov. Larry Hogan.After a family gathering of two dozen people in Catawba County, N.C., 14 people who attended became ill, but it didn’t end there.

€œBefore they started to show symptoms, they continued with their daily lives, such as going to work or taking a beach trip with other families,” Jennifer McCracken, Catawba County’s public health director, wrote in a case study of the event. €œThis set into motion a person-to-person contact chain that to date has spread COVID-19 to 41 people in nine different families and eight different workplaces.”Gregg Gonsalves, an assistant professor of epidemiology at the Yale School of Public Health, said the holiday weekend would multiply the number of family gatherings around the country.“A family gathering one weekend in August that sets off cases in a given county or town is one thing,” Dr. Gonsalves said.

€œOne hundred family gatherings in that county on Labor Day weekend makes it a much larger epidemiological impact.”Dr. Gonsalves said concerns about Labor Day celebrations were being compounded by the fact that there are already large outbreaks on college campuses. €œWe’ve had this gigantic migration event over the past few weeks where students are moving all over the country from homes to universities,” Dr.

Gonsalves said. €œThe relative calm of places like New York and Connecticut has to be now thought of in the context of all this big jumble of people crisscrossing the country to get back to college.”ABC News posted a video on Twitter showing crowds of people gathering at a sports bar near the University of South Carolina. The university has reported more than 1,735 cases since Aug.

1, including 1,461 active cases, according to its Covid-19 dashboard.Brian Pace, a 35-year old psychologist in Phoenix, said he and his friends in Salt Lake City had talked about getting together for a socially distanced outdoor barbecue this weekend. He decided it was smarter to stay home, so he will get takeout from a local barbecue restaurant, JL Smokehouse, instead.“I debated with friends,” Mr. Pace said.

€œBut in the end, my decision boiled down to. Will I look back five years from now and say, ‘That was pretty stupid,’ or regret that I didn’t do it?. It probably would be that it was stupid to do that, so we’re pretty much hunkered down here.

When I go out, I wear a mask, and it’s takeout only.”Dr. Fauci said he didn’t want his words of caution about Labor Day celebrations to stop people from enjoying the holiday. He said he personally planned to spend the weekend with his wife, fishing in the Potomac and having dinner with two friends, for a total of four people, on his backyard deck.“You don’t want to tell people on a holiday weekend that even outdoors is bad — they will get completely discouraged,” Dr.

Fauci said. €œWhat we try to say is enjoy outdoors, but you can do it with safe spacing. You can be on a beach, and you don’t have to be falling all over each other.

You can be six, seven, eight, nine or 10 feet apart. You can go on a hike. You can go on a run.

You can go on a picnic with a few people. You don’t have to be in a crowd with 30, 40 or 50 people all breathing on each other.”The medical mistakes that befell the 87-year-old mother of a North Carolina pharmacist should not happen to anyone, and my hope is that this column will keep you and your loved ones from experiencing similar, all-too-common mishaps.As the pharmacist, Kim H. DeRhodes of Charlotte, N.C., recalled, it all began when her mother went to the emergency room two weeks after a fall because she had lingering pain in her back and buttocks.

Told she had sciatica, the elderly woman was prescribed prednisone and a muscle relaxant. Three days later, she became delirious, returned to the E.R., was admitted to the hospital, and was discharged two days later when her drug-induced delirium resolved.A few weeks later, stomach pain prompted a third trip to the E.R. And a prescription for an antibiotic and proton-pump inhibitor.

Within a month, she developed severe diarrhea lasting several days. Back to the E.R., and this time she was given a prescription for dicyclomine to relieve intestinal spasms, which triggered another bout of delirium and three more days in the hospital. She was discharged after lab tests and imaging studies revealed nothing abnormal.“Review of my mother’s case highlights separate but associated problems.

Likely misdiagnosis and inappropriate prescribing of medications,” Ms. DeRhodes wrote in JAMA Internal Medicine. €œDiagnostic errors led to the use of prescription drugs that were not indicated and caused my mother further harm.

The muscle relaxer and prednisone led to her first incidence of delirium. Prednisone likely led to the gastrointestinal issues, and the antibiotic likely led to the diarrhea, which led to the prescribing of dicyclomine, which led to the second incidence of delirium.”The doctors who wrote the woman’s prescriptions apparently never consulted the Beers Criteria, a list created by the American Geriatrics Society of drugs often unsafe for the elderly.In short, Ms. DeRhodes’s mother was a victim of two medical problems that are too often overlooked by examining doctors and unrecognized by families.

The first is giving an 87-year-old medications known to be unsafe for the elderly. The second is a costly and often frightening medically induced condition called “a prescribing cascade” that starts with drug-induced side effects which are then viewed as a new ailment and treated with yet another drug or drugs that can cause still other side effects.I’d like to think that none of this would have happened if instead of going to the E.R. The older woman had seen her primary care doctor.

But experts told me that no matter where patients are treated, they are not immune to getting caught in a prescribing cascade. The problem also can happen to people who self-treat with over-the-counter or herbal remedies. Nor is it limited to the elderly.

Young people can also become victims of a prescribing cascade, Ms. DeRhodes said.“Doctors are often taught to think of everything as a new problem,” Dr. Timothy Anderson, internist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, said.

€œThey have to start thinking about whether the patient is on medication and whether the medication is the problem.”“Doctors are very good at prescribing but not so good at deprescribing,” Ms. DeRhodes said. €œAnd a lot of times patients are given a prescription without first trying something else.”A popular treatment for high blood pressure, which afflicts a huge proportion of older people, is a common precipitant of the prescribing cascade, Dr.

Anderson said.He cited a Canadian study of 41,000 older adults with hypertension who were prescribed drugs called calcium channel blockers. Within a year after treatment began, nearly one person in 10 was given a diuretic to treat leg swelling caused by the first drug. Many were inappropriately prescribed a so-called loop diuretic that Dr.

Anderson said can result in dehydration, kidney problems, lightheadedness and falls.Type 2 diabetes is another common condition in which medications are often improperly prescribed to treat drug-induced side effects, said Lisa M. McCarthy, doctor of pharmacy at the University of Toronto who directed the Canadian study. Recognizing a side effect for what it is can be hampered when the effect doesn’t happen for weeks or even months after a drug is started.

While patients taking opioids for pain may readily recognize constipation as a consequence, Dr. McCarthy said that over time, patients taking metformin for diabetes can develop diarrhea and may self-treat with Lomotil, which in turn can cause dizziness and confusion.Dr. Paula Rochon, geriatrician at Women’s College Hospital in Ontario, said patients taking a drug called a cholinesterase inhibitor to treat early dementia can develop urinary incontinence, which is then treated with another drug that can worsen the patient’s confusion.Complicating matters is the large number of drugs some people take.

€œOlder adults frequently take many medications, with two-fifths taking five or more,” Dr. Anderson wrote in JAMA Internal Medicine. In cases of polypharmacy, as this is called, it can be hard to determine which, if any, of the drugs a person is taking is the cause of the current symptom.Dr.

Rochon emphasized that a prescribing cascade can happen to anybody. She said, “Everyone needs to consider the possibility every time a drug is prescribed.”Before accepting a prescription, she recommended that patients or their caregivers should ask the doctor a series of questions, starting with “Am I experiencing a symptom that could be a side effect of a drug I’m taking?. € Follow-up questions should include:Is this new drug being used to treat a side effect?.

Is there a safer drug available than the one I’m taking?. Could I take a lower dose of the prescribed drug?. Most important, Dr.

Rochon said, patients should ask “Do I need to take this drug at all?. €Patients and doctors alike often overlook or resist alternatives to medication that may be more challenging to adopt than swallowing a pill. For example, among well-established nondrug remedies for hypertension are weight loss, increasing physical activity, consuming less salt and other sources of sodium, and eating more potassium-rich foods like bananas and cantaloupe.For some patients, frequent use of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sold over-the-counter, like ibuprofen or naproxen, is responsible for their elevated blood pressure.The risk of getting caught in a prescribing cascade is increased when patients are prescribed medications by more than one provider.

It’s up to patients to be sure every doctor they consult is given an up-to-date list of every drug they take, whether prescription or over-the-counter, as well as nondrug remedies and dietary supplements. Dr. Rochon recommended that patients maintain an up-to-date list of when and why they started every new drug, along with its dose and frequency, and show that list to the doctor as well..

SALT LAKE CITY, Sept biaxin online canada. 8, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Health Catalyst, Inc. ("Health Catalyst," biaxin online canada Nasdaq. HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, today announced that it has completed its seventh annual and first ever virtual Healthcare Analytics Summit (HAS), with record registration of more than 3,500 attendees.

Keynotes included Dr biaxin online canada. Amy Abernethy, Principal Deputy Commissioner and Acting CIO of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Michael Dowling, CEO biaxin online canada of Northwell Health, Vice Admiral Raquel Bono, MD, and many others. Other business updates include:The Vitalware, LLC ("VitalWare"), transaction has closed, and integration is underway of the Yakima, Washington-based provider of revenue workflow optimization and analytics SaaS technology solutions for health organizations.

This is another example of Health Catalyst's ability biaxin online canada to scale software on top of its cloud-based Data Operating System (DOS™). DOS will further enhance the analytics insights made available by Vitalware's technology by combining charge and revenue data with claims, cost, and quality data. Vitalware's flagship offering is a Best in KLAS chargemaster management solution that delivers results for the complex regulatory and compliance functions needed by all healthcare provider systems. "As announced on August 11, 2020, we entered into an acquisition agreement to acquire Vitalware and expected to close the biaxin online canada acquisition in Q3 or Q4 of 2020.

We are pleased to announce that we closed the acquisition on September 1, 2020. We are thrilled to formalize the combination of our biaxin online canada solutions for the benefit of our customers and the industry," said CEO Dan Burton. On its upcoming Q3 2020 earnings call, Health Catalyst will share the impact of Vitalware on its Q3 2020 financial performance, which will not be significant given the timing of the acquisition, as well as update its full year 2020 guidance to include the impact of Vitalware. Health Catalyst Co-Founder Steve Barlow has returned from his three-year full-time volunteer mission biaxin online canada for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, having served as Mission President of the Ecuador Quito Mission.

He has rejoined Health Catalyst's companywide Leadership Team as a Senior Vice President, responsible for some of the company's largest customer relationships. Dan Burton said, "We couldn't be more excited about Steve's biaxin online canada return to Health Catalyst. His energy, dedication and commitment to transforming healthcare launched our journey and will continue to make us better and stronger. Steve is leading and overseeing all aspects of our partnerships with some of our largest and longest-standing customers.

Steve's extraordinary experience and capability enable him to be a critical partner and leader in enabling these customers' continued improvement and success." "My experience over the past three years in Ecuador reinforced for me how biaxin online canada fortunate I am to be in a country with high-quality healthcare," said Barlow. "It has been invigorating to return to Health Catalyst and witness the incredible growth and expansion that has occurred over the past few years. We are better positioned than ever before to achieve biaxin online canada our mission of being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. I am grateful to be reunited with our longstanding team members and customers, and I'm thrilled to get to know and work alongside our new customers and teammates in this critical work." Effective October 1, 2020, Chief Technology Officer Dale Sanders will be transitioning to a Senior Advisor role with Health Catalyst, and the company is pleased to announce that one of Dale's longtime protégés and colleagues, Bryan Hinton, will serve as Health Catalyst's next Chief Technology Officer.

Hinton joined Health Catalyst in 2012 and currently serves as the Senior Vice President and biaxin online canada General Manager of the DOS Platform Business. He will continue to lead this business in addition to assuming the responsibilities of CTO. He has been instrumental in the development and integration of DOS and has been working directly with Dale and other technology leaders at Health Catalyst for many biaxin online canada years. His experience prior to joining Health Catalyst includes four years with the .NET Development Center of Excellence at The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, where he established the architectural guidance of all .NET projects.

Previously, at Intel, he was responsible for the development and implementation of Intel's factory data warehouse product installed at Intel global factories. Hinton graduated from Brigham Young University with a BS in Computer Science biaxin online canada. "Dale has been central to Health Catalyst's growth and success and we are grateful to him for his many years of service to our company and to the broader healthcare industry," said Dan Burton, CEO of Health Catalyst. "Thanks to Dale's vision, passion, innovative thinking and broad-based industry experience and perspective, Health Catalyst has grown from a handful biaxin online canada of clients to a large number of organizations relying on us as their digital transformation partner, helping the healthcare ecosystem to constantly learn and improve.

Dale's technology leadership was critical to the company's overall maturation, and I am convinced that we could not have grown and scaled as we have without Dale's foundational leadership and contributions. We are grateful to continue our association with Dale in the months and years ahead in his next role as a Senior biaxin online canada Advisor to the company." Burton added, "We are thrilled to see Bryan Hinton take on this added role after having demonstrated his technology leadership prowess during the course of his tenure at Health Catalyst and having been mentored by Dale for many years. Bryan is well-prepared and ready for this additional responsibility, and we extend our congratulations to him." "I feel like a parent saying goodbye to my kids at their college graduation," said Dale Sanders. "Many of the concepts we first developed and applied over 20 years ago at Intermountain and then later refined during my tenure as CIO at Northwestern had a big influence on our technology and products at Health biaxin online canada Catalyst.

The vision of the Data Operating System and its application ecosystem originated in the real-world healthcare operations and research trenches of Northwestern. At Health Catalyst, I had the wonderful opportunity to lead the teams who made that vision a reality for the benefit of the entire industry. None of it biaxin online canada would have been possible without Bryan Hinton leading the DOS team and Eric Just and Dan Unger leading the application development teams. We've been working side-by-side for many years to make the vision real.

Bryan is the consummate modern CTO from outside biaxin online canada of healthcare that healthcare needs. I've always described Eric as having a manufacturing engineer's mindset with a healthcare data and software engineer's skills, with Dan Unger leveraging his deep domain expertise in financial transformation to oversee the development of meaningful applications and solutions so relevant for CFOs. I'm honored and thrilled to step aside and turn the future over to their very biaxin online canada capable hands. Under their leadership, the best is yet to come for Health Catalyst's technology." About Health CatalystHealth Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, and is committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement.

Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional services expertise to make data-informed decisions and biaxin online canada realize measurable clinical, financial and operational improvements. Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed.Health Catalyst Media Contact:Kristen BerrySenior Vice President, Public Relations+1 (617) 234-4123HealthCatalyst@we-worldwide.com View original content to download multimedia:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/health-catalyst-completes-hosting-of-the-largest-ever-healthcare-analytics-summit-and-announces-the-close-of-the-vitalware-acquisition-301125125.htmlSOURCE Health CatalystNEW YORK and SALT LAKE CITY, Aug. 12, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Northwell Health today joined Health Catalyst, Inc. ("Health Catalyst," biaxin online canada Nasdaq.

HCAT), a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, in announcing a long-term strategic partnership to transform the quality of patient care by using data and analytics to better anticipate and respond to the evolving needs of patients, providers and payers in today's rapidly evolving healthcare ecosystem. In this partnership, Health Catalyst will provide solutions to allow biaxin online canada for increased cloud-based reliance on data and analytics, while sharing insights and best practices from a decade of support to hundreds of other healthcare clients. This will accelerate greater efficiency in data mapping and data storage to/with the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) and the affordable emergence of an enterprise solution for meaningful and measurable clinical, financial and operational improvements. The solutions biaxin online canada will be used across the Northwell Health enterprise, which includes the Feinstein Institute and Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra.

"Northwell Health's goal is a simple one that has not changed since our inception. Be better tomorrow than we are biaxin online canada today. Partnering with Health Catalyst will allow us to accelerate the generation of critical insights for one of the world's most diverse patient populations which includes more than 11 million individuals who will potentially turn to us for care," said Michael Dowling, President and CEO of Northwell Health. "Health Catalyst's Augmented Intelligence (AI) and data science experience and expertise, along with our shared cultural attributes and mission alignment, will allow us to use data-informed decision making to achieve our shared commitment of transforming healthcare for the communities we serve."Northwell Health is New York State's largest health care provider and private employer, with 23 hospitals, nearly 800 outpatient facilities and more than 18,500 affiliated physicians.

More than 11,000 COVID-19 patients have received care from Northwell's 16,000-plus nurses and 4,000 employed doctors, including members of Northwell Health Physician Partners, and using 1,600 additional COVID-19 focused beds."We are honored to have the opportunity to join Northwell Health on its mission-driven journey to transform biaxin online canada healthcare," said Dan Burton, CEO of Health Catalyst. "We have deep respect for our Northwell colleagues and are excited about combining our Solution with Northwell's team members' experience, knowledge and passion for improvement. We are also honored to have Northwell's CEO Michael Dowling as a keynote speaker at Health Catalyst's upcoming Healthcare Analytics Summit (HAS), where we'll hear his important perspectives on the COVID-19 pandemic and the future of healthcare delivery." This biaxin online canada partnership will be built using Health Catalyst's DOS™ technology, a data-first analytics and application platform, to capture and map raw data into meaningful, actionable insights. Northwell Health will also immediately have access to Health Catalyst's growing suite of COVID-19 solutions, including but not limited to a registry, staff and patient tracker and capacity planning tool.

Broadly sharing Northwell Health's data driven insights from its COVID-19 work is another significant opportunity for transformational care."Health Catalyst will become our data and analytics backbone, as their Solutions will enable our biaxin online canada organization to take our current data adoption and transformation to entirely new heights," said John Bosco, Senior Vice President and Chief Information Officer at Northwell Health. "We are looking forward to leaning on DOS to create an affordable, yet innovative enterprise solution that will further enable transformative care to the patients we serve."About Northwell HealthNorthwell Health is New York State's largest health care provider and private employer, with 23 hospitals, 665 outpatient facilities and more than 18,500 affiliated physicians. We care for over two million people annually in the New York metro area and beyond, thanks to biaxin online canada philanthropic support from our communities. Our 66,000 employees – 16,000-plus nurses and 4,000 employed doctors, including members of Northwell Health Physician Partners – are working to change health care for the better.

We are making breakthroughs biaxin online canada in medicine at the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research. We are training the next generation of medical professionals at the visionary Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell and the Hofstra Northwell School of Graduate Nursing and Physician Assistant Studies. For information on our more than 100 medical specialties, visit Northwell.edu.About Health CatalystHealth Catalyst is a leading provider of data and analytics technology and services to healthcare organizations, and is committed to being the catalyst for massive, measurable, data-informed healthcare improvement. Its customers leverage the cloud-based data platform—powered by data from more than 100 million patient records and encompassing trillions of facts—as well as its analytics software and professional biaxin online canada services expertise to make data-informed decisions and realize measurable clinical, financial and operational improvements.

Health Catalyst envisions a future in which all healthcare decisions are data informed. Northwell Health Media Contact:Michelle Pinto516-321-6708mpinto@northwell.edu Health Catalyst Media Contact:Kristen BerrySenior Vice President, Public Relations+1 (617) biaxin online canada 234-4123+1 (774) 573-0455 (m)kberry@we-worldwide.com View original content to download multimedia:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/health-catalyst-and-northwell-health-partner-to-transform-patient-care-with-cloud-based-data-and-analytics-enterprise-solution-301110803.htmlSOURCE Health CatalystPeople tried to escape a heat wave baking the West by heading to Castaic Lake in California on Saturday.Credit...Marcio Jose Sanchez/Associated PressFor many Americans, Labor Day is a goodbye to summer before children go back to school and cold weather arrives. But public health experts are worried that in the midst of a pandemic, the traditional last blast of summer could translate into disaster this fall.After the Memorial Day and Fourth of July weekends, cases of Covid-19 surged around the country after people held family gatherings or congregated in large groups. Dr.

Anthony S. Fauci, the country’s top infectious disease expert, said he wanted people to enjoy Labor Day weekend but urged them to take precautions to avoid a post-holiday spike in cases. Take the fun outdoors. Avoid crowds, keep gatherings to 10 people or fewer.

And even outdoors, where transmission risk is much lower, you still need to wear a mask and practice physical distancing if you’re spending time with people outside your household.“We’ve been through this before,” Dr. Fauci said. €œWe see what happens over holiday weekends, and we want to make sure we don’t have an uptick. What I have been saying is kind of a plea to the American public, and to the younger people, that they can enjoy themselves over Labor Day weekend, but please be aware of and adhere to public health guidelines.”In terms of daily case counts, the United States over all was in worse shape going into Labor Day weekend than it was for Memorial Day weekend.

The nation is now averaging about 40,000 new confirmed cases per day, up from about 22,000 per day ahead of Memorial Day weekend. Dr. Fauci said that the number of daily cases in the United States was “unacceptably high” and that a spike in Covid-19 infections following Labor Day would make it far tougher to control the spread of the disease in the fall as people head indoors.“We’d like to get a good head start into the fall by getting our daily cases and our test positivity as low as possible,” Dr. Fauci said.

€œIf we get another resurgence of infections after Labor Day, it will make it that much more difficult to get that baseline down and make it much more problematic as we enter the fall season.”Public health experts said it might be even more challenging to persuade people to curtail their Labor Day weekend plans, compared with past holiday weekends, because so many people are suffering from pandemic fatigue after six months of social-distancing restrictions, closures and separation from loved ones.“People are getting tired of taking these precautions and of having their lives upended,” said Eleanor J. Murray, an assistant professor of epidemiology at the Boston University School of Public Health. €œThey’re missing their friends and family, and everyone wishes things were back to normal. That’s totally understandable, but unfortunately we don’t get a say, really.”Dr.

Murray said it was important for people to remember that just one gathering could lead to spikes in cases that would affect many more people. She noted that a wedding in Maine with an estimated 65 guests had resulted in 147 infections, including three deaths among people who didn’t even attend the wedding.Dr. Murray said that if people decided to ignore public health guidelines this weekend, at the very least they should place themselves in quarantine for two weeks after the event. €œIf those people at the wedding had said, ‘This is a risk I’m personally willing to take,’ but after the wedding they had quarantined, then the maximum number of cases would have been the 65 wedding attendees,” she said.Although it’s safer to gather outside than indoors, the virus can still be transmitted in outdoor spaces when people gather in large groups or stand close to one another for long periods of time.

Alcohol can loosen inhibitions, prompting people to forget about social distancing. Loud music can prompt people to stand closer and speak louder, which can spew more viral particles and put you at risk even if you’re wearing a mask, health experts say.Dr. Murray said that whatever plan you have for the holiday weekend, ask yourself how you can make it safer for everyone.“People need to socialize and to see people who are important to them,” Dr. Murray said.

€œIf you were thinking of being indoors, go outdoors. If you were thinking about being outdoors, spread out further. Wear masks. Think about what you can do to move down the risk continuum.”While many people feel safer socializing with family members, a number of outbreaks have been traced back to family parties that included relatives from more than one household.

In Maryland, 44 percent of the state’s new cases were traced back to family gatherings, compared with 23 percent from house parties and 21 percent to outdoor events, according to a tweet posted by Gov. Larry Hogan.After a family gathering of two dozen people in Catawba County, N.C., 14 people who attended became ill, but it didn’t end there. €œBefore they started to show symptoms, they continued with their daily lives, such as going to work or taking a beach trip with other families,” Jennifer McCracken, Catawba County’s public health director, wrote in a case study of the event. €œThis set into motion a person-to-person contact chain that to date has spread COVID-19 to 41 people in nine different families and eight different workplaces.”Gregg Gonsalves, an assistant professor of epidemiology at the Yale School of Public Health, said the holiday weekend would multiply the number of family gatherings around the country.“A family gathering one weekend in August that sets off cases in a given county or town is one thing,” Dr.

Gonsalves said. €œOne hundred family gatherings in that county on Labor Day weekend makes it a much larger epidemiological impact.”Dr. Gonsalves said concerns about Labor Day celebrations were being compounded by the fact that there are already large outbreaks on college campuses. €œWe’ve had this gigantic migration event over the past few weeks where students are moving all over the country from homes to universities,” Dr.

Gonsalves said. €œThe relative calm of places like New York and Connecticut has to be now thought of in the context of all this big jumble of people crisscrossing the country to get back to college.”ABC News posted a video on Twitter showing crowds of people gathering at a sports bar near the University of South Carolina. The university has reported more than 1,735 cases since Aug. 1, including 1,461 active cases, according to its Covid-19 dashboard.Brian Pace, a 35-year old psychologist in Phoenix, said he and his friends in Salt Lake City had talked about getting together for a socially distanced outdoor barbecue this weekend.

He decided it was smarter to stay home, so he will get takeout from a local barbecue restaurant, JL Smokehouse, instead.“I debated with friends,” Mr. Pace said. €œBut in the end, my decision boiled down to. Will I look back five years from now and say, ‘That was pretty stupid,’ or regret that I didn’t do it?.

It probably would be that it was stupid to do that, so we’re pretty much hunkered down here. When I go out, I wear a mask, and it’s takeout only.”Dr. Fauci said he didn’t want his words of caution about Labor Day celebrations to stop people from enjoying the holiday. He said he personally planned to spend the weekend with his wife, fishing in the Potomac and having dinner with two friends, for a total of four people, on his backyard deck.“You don’t want to tell people on a holiday weekend that even outdoors is bad — they will get completely discouraged,” Dr.

Fauci said. €œWhat we try to say is enjoy outdoors, but you can do it with safe spacing. You can be on a beach, and you don’t have to be falling all over each other. You can be six, seven, eight, nine or 10 feet apart.

You can go on a hike. You can go on a run. You can go on a picnic with a few people. You don’t have to be in a crowd with 30, 40 or 50 people all breathing on each other.”The medical mistakes that befell the 87-year-old mother of a North Carolina pharmacist should not happen to anyone, and my hope is that this column will keep you and your loved ones from experiencing similar, all-too-common mishaps.As the pharmacist, Kim H.

DeRhodes of Charlotte, N.C., recalled, it all began when her mother went to the emergency room two weeks after a fall because she had lingering pain in her back and buttocks. Told she had sciatica, the elderly woman was prescribed prednisone and a muscle relaxant. Three days later, she became delirious, returned to the E.R., was admitted to the hospital, and was discharged two days later when her drug-induced delirium resolved.A few weeks later, stomach pain prompted a third trip to the E.R. And a prescription for an antibiotic and proton-pump inhibitor.

Within a month, she developed severe diarrhea lasting several days. Back to the E.R., and this time she was given a prescription for dicyclomine to relieve intestinal spasms, which triggered another bout of delirium and three more days in the hospital. She was discharged after lab tests and imaging studies revealed nothing abnormal.“Review of my mother’s case highlights separate but associated problems. Likely misdiagnosis and inappropriate prescribing of medications,” Ms.

DeRhodes wrote in JAMA Internal Medicine. €œDiagnostic errors led to the use of prescription drugs that were not indicated and caused my mother further harm. The muscle relaxer and prednisone led to her first incidence of delirium. Prednisone likely led to the gastrointestinal issues, and the antibiotic likely led to the diarrhea, which led to the prescribing of dicyclomine, which led to the second incidence of delirium.”The doctors who wrote the woman’s prescriptions apparently never consulted the Beers Criteria, a list created by the American Geriatrics Society of drugs often unsafe for the elderly.In short, Ms.

DeRhodes’s mother was a victim of two medical problems that are too often overlooked by examining doctors and unrecognized by families. The first is giving an 87-year-old medications known to be unsafe for the elderly. The second is a costly and often frightening medically induced condition called “a prescribing cascade” that starts with drug-induced side effects which are then viewed as a new ailment and treated with yet another drug or drugs that can cause still other side effects.I’d like to think that none of this would have happened if instead of going to the E.R. The older woman had seen her primary care doctor.

But experts told me that no matter where patients are treated, they are not immune to getting caught in a prescribing cascade. The problem also can happen to people who self-treat with over-the-counter or herbal remedies. Nor is it limited to the elderly. Young people can also become victims of a prescribing cascade, Ms.

DeRhodes said.“Doctors are often taught to think of everything as a new problem,” Dr. Timothy Anderson, internist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, said. €œThey have to start thinking about whether the patient is on medication and whether the medication is the problem.”“Doctors are very good at prescribing but not so good at deprescribing,” Ms. DeRhodes said.

€œAnd a lot of times patients are given a prescription without first trying something else.”A popular treatment for high blood pressure, which afflicts a huge proportion of older people, is a common precipitant of the prescribing cascade, Dr. Anderson said.He cited a Canadian study of 41,000 older adults with hypertension who were prescribed drugs called calcium channel blockers. Within a year after treatment began, nearly one person in 10 was given a diuretic to treat leg swelling caused by the first drug. Many were inappropriately prescribed a so-called loop diuretic that Dr.

Anderson said can result in dehydration, kidney problems, lightheadedness and falls.Type 2 diabetes is another common condition in which medications are often improperly prescribed to treat drug-induced side effects, said Lisa M. McCarthy, doctor of pharmacy at the University of Toronto who directed the Canadian study. Recognizing a side effect for what it is can be hampered when the effect doesn’t happen for weeks or even months after a drug is started. While patients taking opioids for pain may readily recognize constipation as a consequence, Dr.

McCarthy said that over time, patients taking metformin for diabetes can develop diarrhea and may self-treat with Lomotil, which in turn can cause dizziness and confusion.Dr. Paula Rochon, geriatrician at Women’s College Hospital in Ontario, said patients taking a drug called a cholinesterase inhibitor to treat early dementia can develop urinary incontinence, which is then treated with another drug that can worsen the patient’s confusion.Complicating matters is the large number of drugs some people take. €œOlder adults frequently take many medications, with two-fifths taking five or more,” Dr. Anderson wrote in JAMA Internal Medicine.

In cases of polypharmacy, as this is called, it can be hard to determine which, if any, of the drugs a person is taking is the cause of the current symptom.Dr. Rochon emphasized that a prescribing cascade can happen to anybody. She said, “Everyone needs to consider the possibility every time a drug is prescribed.”Before accepting a prescription, she recommended that patients or their caregivers should ask the doctor a series of questions, starting with “Am I experiencing a symptom that could be a side effect of a drug I’m taking?. € Follow-up questions should include:Is this new drug being used to treat a side effect?.

Is there a safer drug available than the one I’m taking?. Could I take a lower dose of the prescribed drug?. Most important, Dr. Rochon said, patients should ask “Do I need to take this drug at all?.

€Patients and doctors alike often overlook or resist alternatives to medication that may be more challenging to adopt than swallowing a pill. For example, among well-established nondrug remedies for hypertension are weight loss, increasing physical activity, consuming less salt and other sources of sodium, and eating more potassium-rich foods like bananas and cantaloupe.For some patients, frequent use of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sold over-the-counter, like ibuprofen or naproxen, is responsible for their elevated blood pressure.The risk of getting caught in a prescribing cascade is increased when patients are prescribed medications by more than one provider. It’s up to patients to be sure every doctor they consult is given an up-to-date list of every drug they take, whether prescription or over-the-counter, as well as nondrug remedies and dietary supplements. Dr.

Rochon recommended that patients maintain an up-to-date list of when and why they started every new drug, along with its dose and frequency, and show that list to the doctor as well..

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ATLANTA, GA – Windsor Over Peachtree – based in Atlanta, Georgia – has paid $1,153 in back wages to an employee after the condominium company wrongly denied biaxin online canada emergency paid sick leave to the employee, who was unable to work while caring for a child when the family’s day care facility closed due to the coronavirus pandemic.The U.S. Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division (WHD) found that Windsor Over Peachtree violated the provisions of the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCRA) by denying the paid sick leave. After WHD contacted the employer, they agreed to pay the back wages biaxin online canada and comply with the FFCRA’s requirements in the future. “The U.S.

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We live will biaxin treat bronchitis in unprecedented times. But what makes them without parallel is not the current pandemic crisis nor the continued problems facing minorities in our institutions. Rather, it’s that for the first time, the problems of accessibility, rights and freedoms are now invading privileged spaces will biaxin treat bronchitis. There can be no ‘getting back to normal’, because ‘normal’ only ever benefited the white, Western, patriarchal, abled and cis ideals.

For many, will biaxin treat bronchitis the world is not suddenly on fire. It has long been burning.The present pandemic lays bare systemic prejudice against the most vulnerable among us. We at Medical Humanities, with our focus on global health and social justice, welcome discussion about how the crisis has disproportionately affected racial and fiscal minorities, those from the disabled community, those who are LGBTQA+ and other vulnerable groups. What we focus on here, now, can lead to greater accessibility and equity in the future.In this expanded issue, will biaxin treat bronchitis we offer some of the incredible work being done across the field of medical humanities prior to the COVID-19 crisis, and we are already reviewing articles on the role of health humanities during the pandemic.

The process of academic publishing tends not to lend itself to immediacy, however, and the challenges of pandemic means greater pressure on everyone, from the authors to the reviewers and readers.To remedy this, we at Medical Humanities have been increasing the work on our blog platform, a place where content can be quickly updated, and where conversations can occur among readers and writers. We openly will biaxin treat bronchitis invite submissions concerning the virus, as well as topics relevant to our wider CFP (call for posts/papers) this year on social justice and health, to both blog and journal. We will do our best to expedite. Finally, we have also been addressing social justice and access in our podcast, where we interviewed disability activist Alice Wong and most recently Dr Oni Blackstock, primary care physician and HIV specialist in New York.

We hope to have many more on these critical subjects.We wish all of you good health and safety and will biaxin treat bronchitis know that many of you are yet on the front lines. Thank you for being part of the community of Medical Humanities.IntroductionMinecraft is a computer game with no specific goals to accomplish. The gameworld will biaxin treat bronchitis consists of three-dimensional (3D) cubes and objects which the player (Steve) can mine and build into infinitely complex (and logically impossible) structures. Steve sometimes encounters other characters (‘mobs’), such as animals and hostile creatures.

He can ‘spawn’ and destroy them. While it looks like a harmless game of logical construction, it conveys some worryingly delusive ideas will biaxin treat bronchitis about the real world. The difference between real and imagined structures is at the heart of the age-old debate around categorising mental disorders.Classification in mental health has had various forms throughout history. Mack and colleagues set out a will biaxin treat bronchitis history of psychiatric classification beginning in 2600 BC with Egyptian references to melancholia and hysteria.

Through the Ancient Greeks with Hippocrates’ phrenitis, mania, melancholia, epilepsy, hysteria and Scythian disease. Through the Renaissance period. Through to 19th-century psychiatry featuring Pinel (known as the first psychiatrist), Kraepelin (known for observational classification) will biaxin treat bronchitis and Freud (known for classifying neurosis and psychosis).1Although the history of psychiatric classification identifies some common trends such as the labels ‘melancholia’ and ‘hysteria’ which have survived millennia, the label ‘depression’ is relatively new. The earliest usage noted by Snaith is from 1899.

€˜in simple pathological depression…the patient exhibits a growing indifference to his former pursuits…’.2 Snaith noted that early will biaxin treat bronchitis 20th-century psychiatrists like Adolf Meyer hoped that ‘depression’ would come to encompass a broad category under which descriptions of subtypes would emerge. This did not happen until the middle of the 20th century. With the publication of the sixth International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1948 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in 1952 and their subsequent revisions, the latter half of the 20th century has seen depression subtype labels proliferate. In their study of the social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression, McPherson and Armstrong illustrate how the codification of depression subtypes in the will biaxin treat bronchitis latter half of the 20th century has been shaped by the evolving context of psychiatry, including power struggles within the profession, a move to community care and the development of psychopharmacology.3During this period, McPherson and Armstrong describe how subsequent versions of the DSM served as battlegrounds for professional disputes and philosophical quarrels around categorisation of mental disorders.

DSM I and DSM II have been described as products of an American Psychiatric Association dominated by psychoanalytic psychiatrists.4 DSM III and DSM III-R have been described as a radical rejection of psychoanalytic thinking, a ‘neo-Kraepelinian revolution’, a reference to the observational descriptive techniques of 19th-century psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin who classified mental disorders into two broad categories. €˜dementia praecox’ and ‘manic-depression’.5 DSM III was seen by some as a turning point in the use of the medical model of mental illness, through provision will biaxin treat bronchitis of specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, and use of field trials and a multiaxial system.6 These latter technocratic additions to psychiatric labelling served to engender a much closer alignment between psychiatry, science and medicine.The codification of mental disorders in manuals has been described by Thomas Schacht as intrinsic to the relationship between science and politics and the way in which psychiatrists gain significant social power by aligning themselves to science.7 His argument drew on Szasz, who saw the mental health establishment as a therapeutic state. Zimbardo, who described psychiatric care as a controlling force. And Foucault, who described the categorisation of the mentally ill as a force for isolating ‘the other’.

Diagnostic critique has been further developed through a cultural relativist lens in that what Western psychiatrists classify as a depression is constructed differently in will biaxin treat bronchitis other cultures.8 Considering these limitations, some critics have gone so far as to argue that psychiatric diagnostic systems should be abolished.9Yet architects of DSM manuals have worked hard to ensure the technology of classification is regarded as genuine scientific activity with sound roots in philosophy of science. In their philosophical defence of DSM IV, Allen Frances and colleagues address their critics under the headings ‘nominalism vs realism’, ‘empiricism vs rationalism’ and ‘categorical vs dimensional’.10 The implication is that there are opposing stances in which a choice must be made or a middle ground forged by those reasonable enough to recognise the need for pragmatism in the service of clinical utility. The nominalism–realism debate is illustrated using will biaxin treat bronchitis as metaphor three different stances a cricket umpire might take on calling strikes and balls. The discussion sets out two of these as extreme views.

€˜at one extreme…those who take a reductionistically realistic view of the world’ versus ‘the solipsistic nominalists…might content that nothing exists’. Szasz, who will biaxin treat bronchitis is characterised as holding particularly extreme views, is named as an archetypal solipsist. There is implied to be a degree of arrogance associated with this view in the illustrative example in which the umpire states ‘there are no balls and there are no strikes until I call them’. Frances therefore sets up a means of grouping two kinds of people as philosophical extremists who can be dismissed, while avoiding addressing the philosophical problems they pose.Frances provides little if any will biaxin treat bronchitis justification for the middle ground stance, ‘There are balls and there are strikes and I call them as I see them’, other than to focus on its clinical utility and the lack of clinical utility in the alternatives ‘naïve realism’ and ‘heuristically barren solipsism’.

The natural conclusion the reader is invited to reach is that a middle ground of a heuristic concept is naturally right because it is not extreme and is naturally useful clinically, without specifying in what way this stance is coherent, resolves the two alternatives, and in what way a heuristic construct that is not ‘real’ can be subject to scientific testing.Similarly, in discussing the ‘categorical vs dimensional’, Frances promotes the ‘prototype approach’. Those holding opposing views are labelled as ‘dualists’ or ‘dichotomisers’. The prototypical approach will biaxin treat bronchitis is again put forward as a clinically useful middle ground. Illustrations are drawn from natural science.

€˜a triangle and will biaxin treat bronchitis a square are never the same’, inciting the reader to consider science as value-free. The prototypical approach emerges as a natural solution, yet the authors do not address how a diagnostic prototype resolves the issues posed by the two alternatives, nor how a prototype can be subjected to natural science methods.The argument presented here is not a defence of solipsism or dualism. Rather it aims to illustrate that if for pragmatic purposes clinicians and policymakers choose to gloss over the philosophical flaws in classification practices, it is then risky to move beyond the heuristic and apply natural science methods to these constructs adding multiple layers of technocratic subclassification. Doing so is more like playing Minecraft than cricket will biaxin treat bronchitis.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for depression is taken as an example of the philosophical errors that can follow from playing Minecraft with unsound heuristic devices, specifically subcategories of persistent forms of depression. As well as serving a will biaxin treat bronchitis clinical purpose, diagnosis in medicine is a way of allocating resources for insurance companies and constructing clinical guidelines, which in turn determine rationing within the National Health Service. The consequences for recipients of healthcare are therefore significant. Clinical utility is arguably not being served at all and patients are left at risk of poor-quality care.Heterogeneity of persistent depressionAndrea Jobst and colleagues note that ‘because of their chronic clinical course, approximately 40% of CD [chronic depression] patients also fulfil criteria for TRD [treatment resistant depression]…usually defined by the number of non-successful biological treatments’.11 This position is reflected in the DSM VAmerican Psychiatric Association (2013), the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance and the ICD-11(World Health Organisation, 2018), which all use a ‘persistent’ depression category, acknowledging a loosely defined mixed group of long-term, difficult-to-treat depressive conditions, often associated with dysthymia and comorbid common mental disorders, various personality traits and psychosocial disability.In contrast, the NICE 2018 draft guideline separates treatments into those for ‘new episodes’ of depression.

€˜further-line’ treatment of depression (equivalent to TRD), CD will biaxin treat bronchitis and ‘depression with co-morbidities’. The latter is subdivided into treatments for ‘complex depression’ and ‘psychotic depression’. These categories and subcategories introduce an unfortunate sense of will biaxin treat bronchitis certainty as though these labels represent real things. An analysis follows of how these definitions play out in terms of grouping of randomised controlled trials in the NICE evidence review.

Specifically, the analysis reveals the overlap between populations in trials which have been separated into discrete categories, revealing significant limitations to the utility of the category labels.The NICE definition of CD requires trial samples to meet the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) for 2 years. Dysthymia and double depression (MDD superimposed on dysthymia) were will biaxin treat bronchitis included. If 75% of the trial population met these criteria, the trial was reviewed in the CD category.12 The definition of TRD (or ‘further-line treatments’) required that the trial sample had demonstrated a ‘limited response to previous treatment’ and randomised to the further-line treatment at this point. If 80% of the trial participants met these criteria, it was reviewed in the TRD category.13 Complex depression was defined as ‘depression co-existing with personality will biaxin treat bronchitis disorder’.

To be classed as complex, 51% of trial participants had to have personality disorder (PD).14It is immediately clear from these definitions that there is a potential problem with attempting to categorise trial populations into just one of these categories. These populations are likely to overlap, whether or not a trial protocol sets out to explicitly record all of this information. The analysis below will illustrate this using examples from within the NICE review.Cataloguing will biaxin treat bronchitis complexity in trial populationsWithin the category of further-line treatments (TRD), 64 trials were reviewed. Comparisons within these trials were further subcategorised into ‘dose escalation strategies’, ‘augmentation strategies’ and ‘switching strategies’.

In drilling down by way of illustration, will biaxin treat bronchitis this analysis considers the 51 trials in the augmentation strategy evidence review. Of these, two were classified by the reviewers as also fulfilling the criteria for CD but were not analysed in the CD category (Study IDs. Fonagy 2015 and Kocsis 200915). About half of the trials (23/51) did not report the mean duration of episode, meaning that it is not possible to will biaxin treat bronchitis know what percentage of participants also met the criteria for CD.

Of trials that did report episode duration, 17 reported a mean duration longer than 24 months. While the standard deviations varied in size or were unreported, the mean indicates a good likelihood that a significant proportion of the participants across these 51 trials met the criteria for CD.Details of baseline employment, trauma history, suicidality, physical will biaxin treat bronchitis comorbidity, axis I comorbidity and PD (all clinical indicators of complexity, severity and chronicity) were not collated by NICE. For the present analysis, all 51 publications were examined and data compiled concerning clinical complexity in the trial populations. Only 14 of 51 trials report employment data.

Of those that will biaxin treat bronchitis do, unemployment ranges from 12% to 56% across trial samples. None of the trials report trauma history. About half of the trials (26/51) excluded people who were considered a suicide will biaxin treat bronchitis risk. The others did not.A large proportion of trials (30/51) did not provide any data on axis 1 comorbidity.

Of these, 18 did not exclude any diagnoses, while 12 excluded some (but not all) disorders. The most common diagnoses excluded were psychotic disorders, substance or alcohol abuse, and bipolar disorder (excluded in 26, 25 will biaxin treat bronchitis and 23 trials, respectively). Only 7 of 51 trials clearly stated that all axis 1 diagnoses were excluded. This leaves only 13 will biaxin treat bronchitis studies providing any data about comorbidity.

Of these, 9 gave partial data on one or two conditions, while 4 reported either the mean number of disorders (range 1.96–2.9) or the percentage of participants (range 68.1–96.7) with any comorbid diagnosis (Nierenberg 2003a, Nierenberg 2006, Watkins 2011a, Town 201715).The majority of trials (46/51) did not report the prevalence of PD. Many stated PD as an exclusion criterion but without defining a threshold for exclusion. For example, PD could be excluded if it ‘impacted’ the will biaxin treat bronchitis depression, if it was ‘significant’, ‘severe’ or ‘persistent’. Some excluded certain PDs (such as antisocial or borderline) and not others but without reporting the prevalence of those not excluded.

In the five trials where prevalence was clear, prevalence ranged from 0% (Ravindran 2008a15), where all PDs were excluded, to 87.5% of the sample (Town 201715) will biaxin treat bronchitis. Two studies reported the mean number of PDs. 2.0 (Nierenberg 2003a) and 0.85 (Watkins 2011a15).The majority of trials (43/51) did not report the prevalence of physical illness. Many stated illness as an exclusion criterion, but the definitions and will biaxin treat bronchitis thresholds were vague and could be interpreted in different ways.

For example, illness could be excluded if it was ‘unstable’, ‘serious’, ‘significant’, ‘relevant’, or would ‘contraindicate’ or ‘impact’ the medication. Of the eight trials reporting information about physical health, will biaxin treat bronchitis there was a wide variation. Four reported prevalence varying from 7.6% having a disability (Eisendrath 201615) to 90.9% having an illness or disability (Town 201715). Four used scales of physical health.

Two indicating mild problems (Nierenberg 2006, Lavretsky 201115) and two indicating moderately high levels of illness (Thase 2007, Fang 201015).The NICE review also divided trial populations into a dichotomy of ‘more severe’ and ‘less severe’ on the grounds that this would be a clinically useful will biaxin treat bronchitis classification for general practitioners. NICE applied a bespoke methodology for creating this dichotomy, abandoning validated measure thresholds in order first to generate two ‘homogeneous’ groups to ‘facilitate analysis’, and second to create an algorithm to ‘read across’ different measures (such as the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale).16 Examining trials which use more than one of these measures reveals problems in the algorithm. Of the 51 trials, there are 6 instances in which the study population will biaxin treat bronchitis falls into NICE’s more severe category according to one measure and into the less severe category according to another. In four of these trials, NICE chose the less severe category (Souza 2016, Watkins 2011a, Fonagy 2015, Town 201715).

The other two trials were designated more severe (Barbee 2011, Dunner 200715). Only 17 of 51 trials reported two or more depression scale measures, leaving much unknown about whether other study populations could count as both more severe will biaxin treat bronchitis and less severe.Absence of knowledge or knowledge of absence?. A key philosophical error in science is to confuse an absence of knowledge with knowledge of absence. It is likely will biaxin treat bronchitis that some of the study populations deemed lacking in complexity or severity could actually have high degrees of complexity and/or severity.

Data to demonstrate this may either fall foul of a guideline committee decision to prioritise certain information over other conflicting information (as in the severity algorithm). The information may be non-existent as it was not collected. It may be somewhere will biaxin treat bronchitis in the publication pipeline. Or it may be sitting in a database with a research team that has run out of funds for supplementary analyses.

Wherever those data are or are not, their absence from will biaxin treat bronchitis published articles does not define the phenomenology of depression for the patients who took part. As a case in point, data from the Fonagy 2015 trial presented at conferences but not published reveal that PD prevalence data would place the trial well within the NICE complex depression category, and that the sample had high levels of past trauma and physical condition comorbidity. The trial also meets the guideline criteria for CD according to the guideline’s own appendices.17 Reported axis 1 comorbidity was high (75.2% had anxiety disorder, 18.6% had substance abuse disorder, 13.2% had eating disorder).18 The mean depression scores at baseline were 36.5 on the Beck Depression Inventory and 20.1 on the HRSD (severe and very severe, respectively, according to published cut-off scores). NICE categorised this population as less severe TRD, not will biaxin treat bronchitis CD and not complex.Notes1.

Avram H. Mack et will biaxin treat bronchitis al. (1994), “A Brief History of Psychiatric Classification. From the Ancients to DSM-IV,” Psychiatric Clinics 17, no.

Snaith (1987), “The Concepts of Mild Depression,” British Journal of Psychiatry 150, no. 3. 387.3. Susan McPherson and David Armstrong (2006), “Social Determinants of Diagnostic Labels in Depression,” Social Science &.

Grob (1991), “Origins of DSM-I. A Study in Appearance and Reality,” The American Journal of Psychiatry. 421–31.5. Wilson M.

Compton and Samuel B. Guze (1995), “The Neo-Kraepelinian Revolution in Psychiatric Diagnosis,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 245, no. 4. 198–9.6.

Gerald L. Klerman (1984), “A Debate on DSM-III. The Advantages of DSM-III,” The American Journal of Psychiatry. 539–42.7.

Thomas E. Schacht (1985), “DSM-III and the Politics of Truth,” American Psychologist. 513–5.8. Daniel F.

Hartner and Kari L. Theurer (2018), “Psychiatry Should Not Seek Mechanisms of Disorder,” Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 38, no. 4. 189–204.9.

Sami Timimi (2014), “No More Psychiatric Labels. Why Formal Psychiatric Diagnostic Systems Should Be Abolished,” Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 14, no. 3. 208–15.10.

Allen Frances et al. (1994), “DSM-IV Meets Philosophy,” The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy. A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine 19, no. 3.

207–18.11. Andrea Jobst et al. (2016), “European Psychiatric Association Guidance on Psychotherapy in Chronic Depression Across Europe,” European Psychiatry 33. 20.12.

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults. Treatment and Management. Draft for Consultation, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/full-guideline-updated, 507.13. Ibid., 351–62.14.

Ibid., 597.15. Note that in order to refer to specific trials reviewed in the guideline, rather than the full citation, the Study IDs from column A in appendix J5 have been used. See www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/addendum-appendix-9 for details and full references.16. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults.

Treatment and Management. Second Consultation on Draft Guideline – Stakeholder Comments Table, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/consultation-comments-and-responses-2, 420–1.17. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults, appendix J5.18. Peter Fonagy et al.

(2015), “Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of Long-Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression. The Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS),” World Psychiatry 14, no. 3. 312–21.19.

American Psychological Association (2018), Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Depression in Children, Adolescents, and Young, Middle-aged, and Older Adults. Draft.20. Jacqui Thornton (2018), “Depression in Adults. Campaigners and Doctors Demand Full Revision of NICE Guidance,” BMJ 361.

We live in biaxin online canada unprecedented times. But what makes them without parallel is not the current pandemic crisis nor the continued problems facing minorities in our institutions. Rather, it’s that for the first time, the biaxin online canada problems of accessibility, rights and freedoms are now invading privileged spaces. There can be no ‘getting back to normal’, because ‘normal’ only ever benefited the white, Western, patriarchal, abled and cis ideals. For many, biaxin online canada the world is not suddenly on fire.

It has long been burning.The present pandemic lays bare systemic prejudice against the most vulnerable among us. We at Medical Humanities, with our focus on global health and social justice, welcome discussion about how the crisis has disproportionately affected racial and fiscal minorities, those from the disabled community, those who are LGBTQA+ and other vulnerable groups. What we focus on here, now, can lead to greater accessibility and equity in the future.In this expanded issue, we offer some of the incredible work being done across the field of medical humanities prior to the COVID-19 crisis, and we are already reviewing articles on the role of health biaxin online canada humanities during the pandemic. The process of academic publishing tends not to lend itself to immediacy, however, and the challenges of pandemic means greater pressure on everyone, from the authors to the reviewers and readers.To remedy this, we at Medical Humanities have been increasing the work on our blog platform, a place where content can be quickly updated, and where conversations can occur among readers and writers. We openly invite submissions concerning the virus, as well as topics relevant to our biaxin online canada wider CFP (call for posts/papers) this year on social justice and health, to both blog and journal.

We will do our best to expedite. Finally, we have also been addressing social justice and access in our podcast, where we interviewed disability activist Alice Wong and most recently Dr Oni Blackstock, primary care physician and HIV specialist in New York. We hope to have many more on these critical subjects.We wish all of you good health and safety and know that many of biaxin online canada you are yet on the front lines. Thank you for being part of the community of Medical Humanities.IntroductionMinecraft is a computer game with no specific goals to accomplish. The gameworld consists of three-dimensional (3D) cubes biaxin online canada and objects which the player (Steve) can mine and build into infinitely complex (and logically impossible) structures.

Steve sometimes encounters other characters (‘mobs’), such as animals and hostile creatures. He can ‘spawn’ and destroy them. While it looks like a harmless game of logical construction, biaxin online canada it conveys some worryingly delusive ideas about the real world. The difference between real and imagined structures is at the heart of the age-old debate around categorising mental disorders.Classification in mental health has had various forms throughout history. Mack and colleagues set out biaxin online canada a history of psychiatric classification beginning in 2600 BC with Egyptian references to melancholia and hysteria.

Through the Ancient Greeks with Hippocrates’ phrenitis, mania, melancholia, epilepsy, hysteria and Scythian disease. Through the Renaissance period. Through to 19th-century psychiatry featuring Pinel (known as the first psychiatrist), Kraepelin (known for observational classification) and Freud (known for classifying neurosis and psychosis).1Although the history of psychiatric classification identifies some common trends such as the labels ‘melancholia’ and ‘hysteria’ which have survived millennia, the label ‘depression’ is relatively biaxin online canada new. The earliest usage noted by Snaith is from 1899. €˜in simple pathological depression…the patient exhibits a growing indifference to his former pursuits…’.2 Snaith noted that early 20th-century psychiatrists like Adolf biaxin online canada Meyer hoped that ‘depression’ would come to encompass a broad category under which descriptions of subtypes would emerge.

This did not happen until the middle of the 20th century. With the publication of the sixth International Classification of Diseases (ICD) in 1948 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in 1952 and their subsequent revisions, the latter half of the 20th century has seen depression subtype labels proliferate. In their study of the social determinants of diagnostic labels in depression, McPherson biaxin online canada and Armstrong illustrate how the codification of depression subtypes in the latter half of the 20th century has been shaped by the evolving context of psychiatry, including power struggles within the profession, a move to community care and the development of psychopharmacology.3During this period, McPherson and Armstrong describe how subsequent versions of the DSM served as battlegrounds for professional disputes and philosophical quarrels around categorisation of mental disorders. DSM I and DSM II have been described as products of an American Psychiatric Association dominated by psychoanalytic psychiatrists.4 DSM III and DSM III-R have been described as a radical rejection of psychoanalytic thinking, a ‘neo-Kraepelinian revolution’, a reference to the observational descriptive techniques of 19th-century psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin who classified mental disorders into two broad categories. €˜dementia praecox’ and ‘manic-depression’.5 DSM III was seen by some as a turning point in the use of the medical model of mental illness, through provision of specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, and use of field trials and a multiaxial system.6 These latter technocratic additions to psychiatric labelling served to engender a biaxin online canada much closer alignment between psychiatry, science and medicine.The codification of mental disorders in manuals has been described by Thomas Schacht as intrinsic to the relationship between science and politics and the way in which psychiatrists gain significant social power by aligning themselves to science.7 His argument drew on Szasz, who saw the mental health establishment as a therapeutic state.

Zimbardo, who described psychiatric care as a controlling force. And Foucault, who described the categorisation of the mentally ill as a force for isolating ‘the other’. Diagnostic critique has been further developed through a cultural relativist lens in that what Western psychiatrists classify as a depression is constructed differently in other cultures.8 Considering these limitations, some critics have gone so far as to argue that psychiatric diagnostic systems should be abolished.9Yet architects of DSM manuals have worked hard to ensure the technology of classification is regarded as genuine scientific activity biaxin online canada with sound roots in philosophy of science. In their philosophical defence of DSM IV, Allen Frances and colleagues address their critics under the headings ‘nominalism vs realism’, ‘empiricism vs rationalism’ and ‘categorical vs dimensional’.10 The implication is that there are opposing stances in which a choice must be made or a middle ground forged by those reasonable enough to recognise the need for pragmatism in the service of clinical utility. The nominalism–realism debate is illustrated using biaxin online canada as metaphor three different stances a cricket umpire might take on calling strikes and balls.

The discussion sets out two of these as extreme views. €˜at one extreme…those who take a reductionistically realistic view of the world’ versus ‘the solipsistic nominalists…might content that nothing exists’. Szasz, who is characterised as holding particularly biaxin online canada extreme views, is named as an archetypal solipsist. There is implied to be a degree of arrogance associated with this view in the illustrative example in which the umpire states ‘there are no balls and there are no strikes until I call them’. Frances therefore sets up a means of grouping two kinds of people as philosophical extremists who can be dismissed, while avoiding addressing the biaxin online canada philosophical problems they pose.Frances provides little if any justification for the middle ground stance, ‘There are balls and there are strikes and I call them as I see them’, other than to focus on its clinical utility and the lack of clinical utility in the alternatives ‘naïve realism’ and ‘heuristically barren solipsism’.

The natural conclusion the reader is invited to reach is that a middle ground of a heuristic concept is naturally right because it is not extreme and is naturally useful clinically, without specifying in what way this stance is coherent, resolves the two alternatives, and in what way a heuristic construct that is not ‘real’ can be subject to scientific testing.Similarly, in discussing the ‘categorical vs dimensional’, Frances promotes the ‘prototype approach’. Those holding opposing views are labelled as ‘dualists’ or ‘dichotomisers’. The prototypical approach is again put forward as a clinically biaxin online canada useful middle ground. Illustrations are drawn from natural science. €˜a triangle and a square are never the biaxin online canada same’, inciting the reader to consider science as value-free.

The prototypical approach emerges as a natural solution, yet the authors do not address how a diagnostic prototype resolves the issues posed by the two alternatives, nor how a prototype can be subjected to natural science methods.The argument presented here is not a defence of solipsism or dualism. Rather it aims to illustrate that if for pragmatic purposes clinicians and policymakers choose to gloss over the philosophical flaws in classification practices, it is then risky to move beyond the heuristic and apply natural science methods to these constructs adding multiple layers of technocratic subclassification. Doing so is more like playing Minecraft biaxin online canada than cricket. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guideline for depression is taken as an example of the philosophical errors that can follow from playing Minecraft with unsound heuristic devices, specifically subcategories of persistent forms of depression. As well as serving a clinical biaxin online canada purpose, diagnosis in medicine is a way of allocating resources for insurance companies and constructing clinical guidelines, which in turn determine rationing within the National Health Service.

The consequences for recipients of healthcare are therefore significant. Clinical utility is arguably not being served at all and patients are left at risk of poor-quality care.Heterogeneity of persistent depressionAndrea Jobst and colleagues note that ‘because of their chronic clinical course, approximately 40% of CD [chronic depression] patients also fulfil criteria for TRD [treatment resistant depression]…usually defined by the number of non-successful biological treatments’.11 This position is reflected in the DSM VAmerican Psychiatric Association (2013), the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance and the ICD-11(World Health Organisation, 2018), which all use a ‘persistent’ depression category, acknowledging a loosely defined mixed group of long-term, difficult-to-treat depressive conditions, often associated with dysthymia and comorbid common mental disorders, various personality traits and psychosocial disability.In contrast, the NICE 2018 draft guideline separates treatments into those for ‘new episodes’ of depression. €˜further-line’ treatment of depression (equivalent biaxin online canada to TRD), CD and ‘depression with co-morbidities’. The latter is subdivided into treatments for ‘complex depression’ and ‘psychotic depression’. These categories and subcategories introduce an unfortunate sense of certainty as biaxin online canada though these labels represent real things.

An analysis follows of how these definitions play out in terms of grouping of randomised controlled trials in the NICE evidence review. Specifically, the analysis reveals the overlap between populations in trials which have been separated into discrete categories, revealing significant limitations to the utility of the category labels.The NICE definition of CD requires trial samples to meet the criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) for 2 years. Dysthymia and double depression (MDD superimposed on dysthymia) were included biaxin online canada. If 75% of the trial population met these criteria, the trial was reviewed in the CD category.12 The definition of TRD (or ‘further-line treatments’) required that the trial sample had demonstrated a ‘limited response to previous treatment’ and randomised to the further-line treatment at this point. If 80% of the trial participants met these criteria, it biaxin online canada was reviewed in the TRD category.13 Complex depression was defined as ‘depression co-existing with personality disorder’.

To be classed as complex, 51% of trial participants had to have personality disorder (PD).14It is immediately clear from these definitions that there is a potential problem with attempting to categorise trial populations into just one of these categories. These populations are likely to overlap, whether or not a trial protocol sets out to explicitly record all of this information. The analysis below will illustrate this using examples from within the NICE review.Cataloguing complexity in trial populationsWithin the category of biaxin online canada further-line treatments (TRD), 64 trials were reviewed. Comparisons within these trials were further subcategorised into ‘dose escalation strategies’, ‘augmentation strategies’ and ‘switching strategies’. In drilling down by way of illustration, this analysis considers the biaxin online canada 51 trials in the augmentation strategy evidence review.

Of these, two were classified by the reviewers as also fulfilling the criteria for CD but were not analysed in the CD category (Study IDs. Fonagy 2015 and Kocsis 200915). About half of the trials (23/51) did not report the mean duration of episode, meaning that it is not possible to know what percentage of participants also met the biaxin online canada criteria for CD. Of trials that did report episode duration, 17 reported a mean duration longer than 24 months. While the standard deviations varied in size or were unreported, the mean indicates a good likelihood that a significant proportion of the participants across these 51 trials met the criteria for CD.Details of baseline employment, trauma history, suicidality, physical comorbidity, axis I comorbidity and PD (all clinical indicators of complexity, severity biaxin online canada and chronicity) were not collated by NICE.

For the present analysis, all 51 publications were examined and data compiled concerning clinical complexity in the trial populations. Only 14 of 51 trials report employment data. Of those that do, unemployment ranges from 12% to 56% across trial biaxin online canada samples. None of the trials report trauma history. About half of the trials (26/51) excluded people who were considered a suicide biaxin online canada risk.

The others did not.A large proportion of trials (30/51) did not provide any data on axis 1 comorbidity. Of these, 18 did not exclude any diagnoses, while 12 excluded some (but not all) disorders. The most common diagnoses excluded were psychotic disorders, biaxin online canada substance or alcohol abuse, and bipolar disorder (excluded in 26, 25 and 23 trials, respectively). Only 7 of 51 trials clearly stated that all axis 1 diagnoses were excluded. This leaves only 13 studies providing any data about biaxin online canada comorbidity.

Of these, 9 gave partial data on one or two conditions, while 4 reported either the mean number of disorders (range 1.96–2.9) or the percentage of participants (range 68.1–96.7) with any comorbid diagnosis (Nierenberg 2003a, Nierenberg 2006, Watkins 2011a, Town 201715).The majority of trials (46/51) did not report the prevalence of PD. Many stated PD as an exclusion criterion but without defining a threshold for exclusion. For example, PD could be excluded if it ‘impacted’ the biaxin online canada depression, if it was ‘significant’, ‘severe’ or ‘persistent’. Some excluded certain PDs (such as antisocial or borderline) and not others but without reporting the prevalence of those not excluded. In the five trials biaxin online canada where prevalence was clear, prevalence ranged from 0% (Ravindran 2008a15), where all PDs were excluded, to 87.5% of the sample (Town 201715).

Two studies reported the mean number of PDs. 2.0 (Nierenberg 2003a) and 0.85 (Watkins 2011a15).The majority of trials (43/51) did not report the prevalence of physical illness. Many stated biaxin online canada illness as an exclusion criterion, but the definitions and thresholds were vague and could be interpreted in different ways. For example, illness could be excluded if it was ‘unstable’, ‘serious’, ‘significant’, ‘relevant’, or would ‘contraindicate’ or ‘impact’ the medication. Of the eight trials reporting information about physical health, there was biaxin online canada a wide variation.

Four reported prevalence varying from 7.6% having a disability (Eisendrath 201615) to 90.9% having an illness or disability (Town 201715). Four used scales of physical health. Two indicating mild biaxin online canada problems (Nierenberg 2006, Lavretsky 201115) and two indicating moderately high levels of illness (Thase 2007, Fang 201015).The NICE review also divided trial populations into a dichotomy of ‘more severe’ and ‘less severe’ on the grounds that this would be a clinically useful classification for general practitioners. NICE applied a bespoke methodology for creating this dichotomy, abandoning validated measure thresholds in order first to generate two ‘homogeneous’ groups to ‘facilitate analysis’, and second to create an algorithm to ‘read across’ different measures (such as the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale).16 Examining trials which use more than one of these measures reveals problems in the algorithm. Of the 51 trials, there are 6 instances in which the study population falls into NICE’s more severe biaxin online canada category according to one measure and into the less severe category according to another.

In four of these trials, NICE chose the less severe category (Souza 2016, Watkins 2011a, Fonagy 2015, Town 201715). The other two trials were designated more severe (Barbee 2011, Dunner 200715). Only 17 biaxin online canada of 51 trials reported two or more depression scale measures, leaving much unknown about whether other study populations could count as both more severe and less severe.Absence of knowledge or knowledge of absence?. A key philosophical error in science is to confuse an absence of knowledge with knowledge of absence. It is biaxin online canada likely that some of the study populations deemed lacking in complexity or severity could actually have high degrees of complexity and/or severity.

Data to demonstrate this may either fall foul of a guideline committee decision to prioritise certain information over other conflicting information (as in the severity algorithm). The information may be non-existent as it was not collected. It may be somewhere in the publication pipeline biaxin online canada. Or it may be sitting in a database with a research team that has run out of funds for supplementary analyses. Wherever those data are or are not, their absence from published articles does not define the phenomenology of depression for biaxin online canada the patients who took part.

As a case in point, data from the Fonagy 2015 trial presented at conferences but not published reveal that PD prevalence data would place the trial well within the NICE complex depression category, and that the sample had high levels of past trauma and physical condition comorbidity. The trial also meets the guideline criteria for CD according to the guideline’s own appendices.17 Reported axis 1 comorbidity was high (75.2% had anxiety disorder, 18.6% had substance abuse disorder, 13.2% had eating disorder).18 The mean depression scores at baseline were 36.5 on the Beck Depression Inventory and 20.1 on the HRSD (severe and very severe, respectively, according to published cut-off scores). NICE categorised this population as less severe biaxin online canada TRD, not CD and not complex.Notes1. Avram H. Mack et biaxin online canada al.

(1994), “A Brief History of Psychiatric Classification. From the Ancients to DSM-IV,” Psychiatric Clinics 17, no. 3. 515–9.2. R.

P. Snaith (1987), “The Concepts of Mild Depression,” British Journal of Psychiatry 150, no. 3. 387.3. Susan McPherson and David Armstrong (2006), “Social Determinants of Diagnostic Labels in Depression,” Social Science &.

Medicine 62, no. 1. 52–7.4. Gerald N. Grob (1991), “Origins of DSM-I.

A Study in Appearance and Reality,” The American Journal of Psychiatry. 421–31.5. Wilson M. Compton and Samuel B. Guze (1995), “The Neo-Kraepelinian Revolution in Psychiatric Diagnosis,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 245, no.

4. 198–9.6. Gerald L. Klerman (1984), “A Debate on DSM-III. The Advantages of DSM-III,” The American Journal of Psychiatry.

539–42.7. Thomas E. Schacht (1985), “DSM-III and the Politics of Truth,” American Psychologist. 513–5.8. Daniel F.

Hartner and Kari L. Theurer (2018), “Psychiatry Should Not Seek Mechanisms of Disorder,” Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 38, no. 4. 189–204.9. Sami Timimi (2014), “No More Psychiatric Labels.

Why Formal Psychiatric Diagnostic Systems Should Be Abolished,” Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology 14, no. 3. 208–15.10. Allen Frances et al. (1994), “DSM-IV Meets Philosophy,” The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy.

A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine 19, no. 3. 207–18.11. Andrea Jobst et al. (2016), “European Psychiatric Association Guidance on Psychotherapy in Chronic Depression Across Europe,” European Psychiatry 33.

20.12. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults. Treatment and Management. Draft for Consultation, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/full-guideline-updated, 507.13. Ibid., 351–62.14.

Ibid., 597.15. Note that in order to refer to specific trials reviewed in the guideline, rather than the full citation, the Study IDs from column A in appendix J5 have been used. See www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/addendum-appendix-9 for details and full references.16. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults. Treatment and Management.

Second Consultation on Draft Guideline – Stakeholder Comments Table, https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/gid-cgwave0725/documents/consultation-comments-and-responses-2, 420–1.17. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018), Depression in Adults, appendix J5.18. Peter Fonagy et al. (2015), “Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial of Long-Term Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy for Treatment-Resistant Depression. The Tavistock Adult Depression Study (TADS),” World Psychiatry 14, no.

3. 312–21.19. American Psychological Association (2018), Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Depression in Children, Adolescents, and Young, Middle-aged, and Older Adults. Draft.20. Jacqui Thornton (2018), “Depression in Adults.

Campaigners and Doctors Demand Full Revision of NICE Guidance,” BMJ 361. K2681..

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